PHILIPPINES Feb-Mar 1990: annotated trip list

by Don Roberson

Here is my annotated trip list from a 1990 Philippines trip with the KingBird tour led by Ben King; see the companion trip report for more general details. I recorded 287 species but this number must be revised downward. All the following are listed in parentheses and not included in the final total. First, I don't 'count' non-native introduced species, so delete three (Rock Pigeon, Eurasian Tree Sparrow, Red Avadavat). One claim (Pacific Reef-Heron) is now questionable, so leave it out [Black-nest Swiftlet may also debatable; but for now I include it. A couple other species were identified from my notes only recently; those are discussed below]. Finally, I delete four potential lifers that were 'heard only' and another (Spotted Kingfisher) for which I got 'untickable' views. The remaining 277 species are considered my trip total.

Of these 277 species, some 148 were new 'life birds' for me (indicated by an asterisk [*] after the name), a remarkable 53% of my trip total; 103 of these were Philippine endemics (37% of the trip total). The Philippines are very much an endemic-rich country. According to the taxonomy used by the newest Philippine field guide (Kennedy et al. 2000) — a book that of course did not exist in 1990 — there are 172 Philippine endemics. However, there have been a number of splits recognized by most current authorities (e.g., Dickinson 2003) that are not even in the new field guide (such as the 4-way split of Tarictic Hornbill), plus new species, so that the actual count of endemics is more like 190 species. My 103 endemics was ~55% of them).

One new species has been discovered to science since 1990: Bukidnon Woodcock Scolopax bukidnonensis. Our Mt Katanglad camp was quite near the spot it was eventually found. Another (Cebu Flowerpecker Dicaeum quadricolor) was considered extinct in 1990, but has since been rediscovered. There have also been a number of taxonomic changes in the past 15 years, and I have updated the taxonomy to generally follow the new Philippines guide [Kennedy et al. 2000], except as modified by the volumes to date of the Handbook of the Birds of the World (HBW), or by Dickinson's (2003) revision of the Howard & Moore world checklist,. [In 1990, I was following Clements' world checklist taxonomy, but I no longer do so.]

My 1990 visit was 27 days (26 with the King Bird tour), not counting international flight time. Now, in the very early 21st century, a month-long hardcore visit to the Philippines can reach over 330 species and over 150 endemics. We birded five islands in 1990 [Luzon, Palawan, Mindanao, Cebu, Bohol] but now (2005) many trips also add Negros and an islet off Palawan (La Raza). The logistics are better arranged these days and, remarkably, all the endemic birds are still present in tiny remnants of habitat. Even Great Philippine Eagle continues to found with regularity, and birds that were considered 'hopeless' back in 1990 [e.g., Whiskered Pitta, Luzon Striped-Babbler, Celestial Monarch] can now be found with some luck. There are at least 'known' spots to check. I compared my 1990 tour list with a recent private trip organized by Tim Fisher for some hardcore Scandinavians. They had 90 species I missed, but they also missed about 32 species that I saw in 1990 (mostly migrants but a few endemics that have declined seriously), so the net difference in about 60 species.

This comparison is not quite fair because the King Bird tour in 1990 recorded about 20 species that I didn't see, so maybe the net difference these days is about 40 more birds per month-long trip. I missed these 18-20 birds because I spent as much time as I could birding alone (away from the group) in 1990. As detailed in the daily log, my efforts to go off in other directions were not always successful and were frowned on by the leader. I missed such birds as Osprey Pandion haliaetus (others saw on Palawan), Oriental Hobby Falco severus (others had at PICOP), Ruddy-breasted Crake Porzana fusca (others saw on Palawan), Eurasian Curlew Numenius arquata (others saw on Palawan), Greater Coucal Centropus sinensis (one heard but not seen on Palawan), Azure-rumped Parrot Tanygnathus sumatranus (others saw enroute Davao to Bislig), Rufous-backed Kingfisher Ceyx rufidorsa (heard only on Palawan; others saw), Black-headed Bulbul Pycnonotus atriceps (others had on Palawan), and Velvet-fronted Nuthatch S. frontalis (others saw on Palawan) by birding on my own. Those didn't matter to me; none of those would have been lifers. But I did miss at least nine potential lifers (8 of them endemics) by my wanderings: Flame-breasted Fruit-Dove Ptilinopus marchei (others glimpsed one in flight on Mt Polis), Cream-breasted Fruit-Dove Ptilinopus merrilli (others had at Quezon NP), Black-chinned Fruit-Dove Ptilinopus leclancheri (heard daily but not seen at R. Sikatuna NP, Bohol), Red-crested Malkoha Phaenicophaeus superciliosus (others saw at Mt Makiling), Rufous Coucal Centropus unirufus (others got at Quezon NP), Palawan Tit Pardaliparus amabilis (others had on Palawan), Lanceolated Warbler Locustella lanceolata (others claimed this species near Bislig), Palawan Flycatcher Ficedula plateni (other saw on Palawan), and Olive-backed Flowerpecker Prionochilus olivaceus (others saw at PICOP). On the other hand, I saw the endemic Sooty Woodpecker —missed by the entire tour group — as some consolation. And I found quite a number of lifers on my own, which I really enjoyed.


  • Wonderful views of Great Philippine Eagle both at a nest with a chick, and in flight on various days on Mt Katanglad
  • Just over 100 endemics, a number of which I found myself, including the huge Sooty Woodpecker
  • Close encounters with such scarce birds as Luzon Bleeding-heart & Luzon Redstart
  • Nice flight views of Philippine Cockatoo, which has severely declined since my visit
  • Multiple views of Black Shama and discussions with the primary Philippine biologist for this endangered species
  • Fine encounters with such 'most wanted' species as Apo Myna, Philippine Trogon, Rufous Paradise-Flycatcher, and White-cheeked Bullfinch
  • Excellent owling, including close encounters with both Philippine & Javan Frogmouth, Palawan Scops-Owl, and several more
  • A good selection of Asiatic migrants, including Speckled Reed-Warbler
  • SERIOUS DIPS: [not including species that in 1990 were not known to occur at any specific sites we visited]


    In the annotated list, there are four columns: Non-passerines
    Wandering Whistling-Duck Dendrocygna arcuata 1990 200+ at the Bagoinigo fish ponds near Davao and a pair in marsh near Bislig.
    Philippine Duck Anas luzonica * E/
    1990 80 at the Bagoinigo fish ponds near Davao.
    Garganey Anas querquedula 1990 A male & 2 females at the Bagoinigo fish ponds near Davao; description in notes
    Red Junglefowl Gallus gallus * 1990 Heard at several spots in south Luzon but I saw but one male in Rajah Sikatuna NP (Bohol) where it "acted like a shy curassow high in canopy and was very skittish." Endemic race philippensis. I thought it was really neat to see a wild chicken.
    [Palawan Peacock-Pheasant Polyplectron emphanum E/
    1990 Heard only despite much effort and a responsive male that approached us (and the tape) in thick forest near Balsahan (Palawan). The failure to see this much-wanted bird was a major disappointment of the trip.
    Yellow Bittern Ixobrychus sinensis 1990 A couple at the Bagoinigo fish ponds near Davao and in marsh near Bislig.
    Cinnamon Bittern Ixobrychus cinnamomeus 1990 Up to 10/day in marshes near Bislig; others had more at Balsahan (Palawan)
    Little Egret Egretta garzetta 1990 Common on Palawan; more in theBislig marshes on Mindanao
    [Pacific Reef-Heron Egretta sacra 1990 The checklist says 80 for thebeach/mangrove day on Palawan but in retrospect I have doubts; see next species.]
    Chinese Egret Egretta eulophotes * NT 1990 My notes list one at Garceliano Beach near Puerto Princesa (Palawan) but in retrospect I believe a significant number (perhaps all?) of the 80 "reef-herons" seen roosting in mangroves on 20 Feb were this species. My notes say that "After sorting through 100 ore more Little & E. [=P.] Reed-Herons roosting on top of mangroves. Ben King found one basic-plumaged Chinese Egret. Most Little and yellow-billed Reefs   were in high breeding plumage with plumes; some Littles had yellow-green lores & plumes; all Littles had black legs & yellow toes." But my notes do not describe the Reef-Herons in detail and after talking with Tim Fisher later I suspect that all the "reef-herons" were in fact Chinese Egrets.
    Intermediate Egret Egretta intermedia 1990 Rather common around Puerto Princesa (Palawan)
    Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis 1990 Common in lowland marshes and fields on Palawan; Mindanao; Bohol; Luzon
    Striated Heron Butorides striatus 1990 Two along the Ifugoa River south of Banaue (Luzon)
    Javan Pond-Heron Ardeola speciosa 1990 One in the marsh near Bislig on Mindanao
    Jerdon's Baza  Aviceda jerdoni 1990 2 imms. in the PICOP forest 20km south of Bislig (Mindanao)
    Oriental Honey-Buzzard  Pernis ptilorhynchus  * 1990 Onein molt soaring over Mt Katanglad; I was watching it when a Philippine Eagle glided in and dwarfed it; the honey-buzzard was the local endemic race philippensis.
    Barred Honey-Buzzard  Pernis celebensis  * 1990 One in the PICOP forest 20 km south of Bislig (Mindanao). This is apparently the southern endemic steeri race.
    Brahminy Kite  Haliastur indus 1990 Just two: one at Cayugan de Oro; another on Bohol enroute to Rajah Sikatuna NP
    White-bellied Fish-Eagle  Haliaeetus leucogaster 1990 A pair near Puerto Princesa (Palawan)
    Crested Serpent-Eagle  Spilornis cheela 1990 One at Balsahan (Palawan)
    Philippine Serpent-Eagle  Spilornis holospilus  * E 1990 Regularly seen in small numbers (max 1-2/day) at Quezon NP (Luzon); Rajah Sikatuna NP (Bohol); and PICOP forest & Mt Katanglad (Mindanao). Although said to have a different voice than S. cheela, which gets to the Philippines only on Palawan, this taxa is not split by a number of recent authorities
    Eastern Marsh-Harrier  Circus spilonotus 1900 One over wet fields near Iwahig Penal Farm (Palawan)
    Japanese Sparrowhawk  Acciper gularis 1990 One near Balsahan (Palawan)
    Crested Goshawk  Accipiter trivirgatus  * 1990 An adult one day & an imm. another on Mt Katanglad; singles in PICOP forest (one perched and in scope); all on Mindanao. My notes for Mt Katanglad say "an adult flew across canyon below us (Tim Fisher & I) with a snake in its talons. From above rather uniform brown with long banded tail; very thin white rump band formed by white tips to uppertail coverts." The imm is also described in detail in my notes
    Chinese Goshawk  Accipiter soloensis  * 1990 Singles each day at Rajah Sikatuna NP (Bohol); another on Mt Makiling (Luzon)
    Gray-faced Buzzard  Butastus indicus 1990 Singles on both days near Balsahan (Palawan); also in PICOP forest & Mt Katanglad (Mindanao)
    Great Philippine (Monkey-eating) Eagle  Pithecophaga jefferyi  * E/
    1990 By far the highlight of the trip. A pair was nesting on Mt Katanglad and had a half-grown chick in the nest. The baby could be seen most any time of day. I spent enough time on the lookout (across the canyon from the nest) to see both adults; one of which brought in food and tore it up for the mildly-interested chick. I had one of the adults glide right over my head when I was down in the canyon and another soar above me (for quick photos) up on the ridge. I saw an adult on 3 of 4 days at the Katanglad camp. This was my 'most wanted' bird in the world and was incredibly exciting to see — and yet it was so sad. I could hear chainsaws cutting down the forest from dawn to dusk nearby.
    Philippine Hawk-Eagle  Spizaetus philippensis  * E/
    1990 Onewas in PICOP forest (Mindano); two more were seen soaring above a ridge near Quezon NP (Luzon). There were 6+ more distant soaring hawks on that thermal that may have included more of these. I have a sketch and detailsof the closest one in my notes. Another Spizaetus sp. in flight at Mt Katangladwas this or Changeable H-E. The Luzon race is philippensis; the Mindanaorace pinskeri
    Philippine Falconet  Microhierax erythrogenys  * E 1990 Usually seen in pairs: daily in PICOP forest; also enroute Baracatan (Mindanao;these are meridionalis) and a pair at Quezon NP (Luzon; erythrogenys)
    Peregrine Falcon  Falco peregrinus 1990 One near Puerto Princesa (Palawan)
    Barred Buttonquail  Turnix suscitator  * 1990 One alongthe Iwahig Penal Farm road (Palawan; endemic race haynaldi)
    Barred Rail  Gallirallus torquatus  * 1990 One glimpsed on shore of Manila Bay; better seen at American Cemetery the next day (endemic nominate race torquatus)
    Slaty-breasted Rail  Gallirallus striatus  * 1990 One in marsh near Bislig (Mindanao)
    White-browed Crake  Porzana cinerea  * 1990 Fair numbers observed at Puerto Princesa wetlands and at Bislig marsh
    Plain Bush-hen  Amaurornis olivaceus  * E 1990 A couple seen crossing the road in PICOP forest; others had more on Bohol
    White-breasted Waterhen  Amaurornis phoenicurus 1990 Singles scattered in wetlands: Bislig marsh; Rajah Sikatuna NP; Candaba marsh
    Watercock  Gallicrex cinerea  * 1990 Up to 4/day in wetlands near Bislig
    Common Moorhen  Gallinula chloropus 1990 Regular at marshes near Bislig and in Candaba marsh
    Pair of Philippine Falconets huddled together after a rainstorm in PICOP forest, lowland Mindanao
    Greater Painted-Snipe Gallinago stenura * 1990 One female at Puerto Princesa fish ponds (Palawan); up to 25/day in wet fields near Bislig (Mindanao)
    Black-winged Stilt Himantopus himantopus 1990 Scattered birds at Puerta Princesa fish ponds & elsewhere on Palawan
    Black-bellied (Gray) Plover Pluvialis squatarola 1990 A few at Puerta Princesa beach; others at Baclayton on Bohol
    Pacific Golden-Plover Pluvialis fulva 1990 A few at Puerta Princesa fish ponds
    Little Ringed Plover Charadrius dubius 1990 Rather common on shore of Manila Bay; 1 along river below Banaue
    Snowy (Kentish) Plover Charadrius alexandrinus 1990 On beaches at edge of Manila Bay; on Palawan; and Baclayton on Bohol
    Malay Plover Charadrius peronii 1990 Two on beach across from Hyatt Hotel on Manila Bay (Luzon)
    Lesser Sand-Plover Charadrius monglous 1990 Scattered birds at Puerta Princesa fish ponds & Baclayton beach on Bohol
    Greater Sand-Plover Charadrius leschenaultii 1990 I saw one with Lessers at Baclayton beach (Bohol); others had it on Palawan
    Common Redshank Tringa totanus 1990 Scattered birds at Puerta Princesa fish ponds & in Iwahig fields on Palawan
    Marsh Sandpiper Tringa stagnatilis 1990 About 10 at Puerta Princesa fish ponds & 3 at Iwahig fields on Palawan
    Common Greenshank Tringa nebularia 1990 Scattered birds at Puerta Princesa fish ponds & elsewhere on Palawan
    Wood Sandpiper Tringa glareola 1990 Recorded at Manila; Puerta Princesa fish ponds; Bislig; and Candada marsh
    Green Sandpiper Tringa ochropus 1990 One on the shores of Manila Bay opposite the Hyatt Hotel
    Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus 1990 A few on the beach at Puerta Princesa (Palawan); others had it on Bohol also
    Common Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos 1990 Widespread: Manila Bay & Puerta Princesa fish ponds & fields & Bislig & and along river south of Banaue
    Gray-tailed Tattler Heterosceles brevipes 1990 One on Puerta Princesa beach but a dozen or so at Baclayton beach on Bohol
    Ruddy Turnstone Arenaria interpres 1990 Thirty or so at Baclayton beach on Bohol
    Rufous-necked Stint Calidris ruficollis 1990 Scattered birds at PuertaPrincesa fish ponds & elsewhere on Palawan
    Long-toed Stint Calidris subminuta 1990 Small flock on Manila Bay; others at Puerta Princesa fish ponds & fields
    Pintail Snipe Gallinago stenura * 1990 Two at Puerta Princesa fish ponds (Palawan). My notes say: "size of Common Snipe or a tad larger without any white on trailing edge of secondaries in flight; also paler and less-contrastyupperparts and palish upperwing coverts in flight"
    Swinhoe's Snipe Gallinago megala * 1990 Eight or so in Bislig marsh (Mindanao); another in Candada marsh (Luzon). My notes read: "Noticeably heavier and heavier-flying ('lumbering') compared to Common Snipe (of which there was one small dark snipe with broad white tips to secondaries here); looks rather uniform above (not contrasty) but with only a thin fringe of pale on tips of inner primaries and secondaries; uniformly dark underwing;much white in broad tail (white on outers and on tips of all retricies). Call is a startled 'skneet', ' wheezier and thinner than the 'squet!' of Common Snipe."
    Common (Eurasian) Snipe Gallinago gallinago 1990 Singles at Puerta Princesa and in Bislig marsh; see previous species
    Oriental Pratincole Glareola maldivarum 1990 Four at Puerta Princesa beach (Palawan); three at Candada marsh (Luzon)
    Black-headed Gull Larus ridibundus 1990 Two on shores of Manila Bay
    Great Crested Tern Sterna bergii 1990 Several off the Puerta Princesa beach
    Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybridus 1990 Common (200+) over Manila Bay; a couple at Candada marsh
    [Rock Pigeon Columba livia 1990 Non-native feral pigeons seen around Manila and Banaue; they were not included in any totals as I do not 'count' introduced species on world lists
    White-throated Pigeon (Metallic Wood-Pigeon) Columba vitiensis 1990 Three on Mt Polis (Luzon)
    Thick-billed Pigeon  Treron curvirostra 1990 Five in forest at Balsahan (Palawan; race erimacra)
    Pompadour Green-Pigeon  Treron pompadora  * 1990 Common (up to 15/day) in Rajah Sikatuna NP (Bohol)
    Pink-necked Green-Pigeon  Treron vernans 1990 Thirty along the Iwahig penal colony road (Palawan; race vernans)
    White-eared Brown-Dove  Phapitreron leucotis  * E 1990 Common in PICOP forest (up to 25/day) with scattered birds at Manila (American cemetery) & Barcatan & heard on Mt Polis. Some Phapitreron sp? at PICOP may have been Amethyst P. amethystina but views were never good enough for me to count it
    Yellow-breasted Fruit-Dove  Ptilinopus occipitalis  * E 1990 I saw but one: at Baracatan in the Apo Range (Mindanao); others had more elsewhere
    Green Imperial-Pigeon  Ducula aenea 1990 Common on Palawan (upto 20/day); non-endemic race palawalensis
    Pink-bellied Imperial-Pigeon  Ducula poliocephala  * E/
    1990 Singles on 3 of 4 days in PICOP lowland forest (Minadano)
    Spotted Imperial-Pigeon  Ducula carola  * E 1990 Two in flight over Mt Polis on the final morning (my notes for 17 Mar read: "pale head/breast; sharply cut-off dark belly; dark tail") was the final lifer of the trip
    Philippine Cuckoo-Dove  Macropygia tenuirostris  * E 1990 Singles seen on Mt Katanglad and Bacalayton & Apo Range but fairly common in Rajah Sikatuna NP (Bohol). Others heard elsewhere. All apparently of nominate race
    Spotted Dove  Streptopelia chinensis 1990 Common in more open areas of Palawan, Luzon, and Mindanao; race tigrina
    Red Collared-Dove  Streptopelia tranquebarica 1990 Common at American Cemetery in Manila
    Island Collared-Dove  Streptopelia bitorquata 1990 Single bird along Iwahig Penal Colony road on Palawan
    Zebra Dove  Geopelia striata 1990 Common roadside dove most everywhere (nominate race)
    Emerald Dove  Chalcophaps indica 1990 A forest floor dove flushed on Palawan; couple more at Rajah Sikatuna NP (Bohol)
    Luzon Bleeding-heart  Gallicolumba luzonica  * E/
    1990 One seen briefly at Mt Makiling; two others seen much better (but always walking away from me down the path) while birding alone at Quezon NP; sketch in my notes
    Guaiabero  Bolbopsittacus lunulatus  * E 1990 Singles seen on a couple of days at PICOP forest (Mindanao)
    Colasisi (Philippine Hanging-Parrot)  Loriculus philippensis  * E 1990 A few seen or heard daily on Mt Katanglad and in PICOP forest (Mindanao)
    Mindanao (Johnstone's) Lorikeet  Trichoglossus johnstoniae * E 1990 Small parties (5 & 6) flew by me on Mt Katanglad
    Blue-crowned Racquet-tail  Prioniturus discurus * E 1990 A few seen in PICOP forest on Mindanao (up to 7/day)
    Red-crowned (Luzon) Racquet-tail  Prioniturus montanus  * E/
    1990 Two flew over me while on Mt Polis (Luzon). Quick flight views only; i.d. primarily on range
    Green Racquet-tail Prioniturus luconensis  * E/
    1990 Two (presumably a pair) were at Quezon NP
    Blue-naped Parrot  Tanygnathus lucionensis  * NT 1990 Reasonably common in the forest on Palawan (up to 23/day); heard when not seen
    Philippine Cockatoo  Cacatua haematuropygia  * E/
    1990 Two birds (presumably a pair) flew over us and downstream as we walked along the river near Balsahan on Palawan. My notes read: "This is a lovely, white, small cockatoo; a bit of yellow wash to back of head & bright salmon undertail coverts." At the time it was called Red-vented Cockatoo. It has been in serious decline since I was there.
    Hodgson's Hawk-Cuckoo  Cuculus fugax * 1990 An imm flew right past me in the American Cemetery in Manila. My notes read: "Flew right over my head. It really looks like an imm. Sharp-shinned Hawk (blackish cap & heavy streaks on breast) on a cuckoo body. Looked medium-sized and long-winged. Decidedly larger that the imm. Plaintive Cuckoo seen an hour earlier." At the time I thought this was Northern Hawk-Cuckoo C. hyperythrus but more recent literature indicates that hyperythrus is not confirmed for the Philippines (although it was on the KingBird checklist we used). Years later my best analysis, based on plumage and size, is  fugax. Presumably this was a migrant at this location. King split the resident bird (C. pectoralis) as a separate species (see next entry).
    Philippine Hawk-Cuckoo  Cuculus pectoralis  * E 1990 Two heard & one seen well when taped in by Ben King at Mt Makiling on Luzon."Flew by often like a small Accipiter;" reads my notes. This was a split that King was then advocating (from Hodgson's C. fugax) that is now adopted widely.
    Plaintive Cuckoo  Cacomantis merulinus 1990 Heard widely on Luzon& Palawan & PICOP forest on Mindanao. Only five were seen (including an imm at the American Cemetery in Manila) and three were along Balsahan trail. Philippine birds are of the nominate race.
    Rusty-breasted Cuckoo  Cacomantis sepulcralis 1990 Regularly heard at Mt Polis (Luzon); Rajah Sikatuna NP (Bohol); and Mt Katanglad (Mindanao). The only one actually seen was on Bohol. Some authorities lump this with Brush Cuckoo C. variolosus but HBW and Dickinson (2003) splitit (as did Ben King). Philippine birds are of the nominate race.
    Violet Cuckoo  Cacomantis xanthorhynchus 1990 Two males seen in PICOP forest on  Mindanao. Endemic race amethystinus
    Philippine Drongo-Cuckoo  Surniculus velutinus  * E 1990 Amale seen nicely at Mt Makiling. This is a recent split from Asian Drongo-Cuckoo S. lugubris which occurs on Palawan. The Philippine endemic is on the other islands.
    Asian Koel  Eudynamys scolopacea 1990 One male seen at Bagoinigo fish ponds near Davao on Mindanao
    Chestnut-breasted Malkoha  Phaenicophaeus curvirostris 1900 I saw 7 on the day spent alone on the Balsahan trail on Palawan. None seen on days with the tour group.
    Scale-feathered Malkoha  Phaenicophaeus cumingi  * E 1990 Three seen in Quezon NP and another along the road to Banaue (both on Luzon)
    Philippine Coucal  Centropus viridis  * E 1990 Widespread but most often heard. Seen at Baracaton & PICOP forest & Mt Katanglad; heard daily at Rajah Sikatuna & Mt Makiling & Mt Polis & Quezon NP
    Lesser Coucal  Centropus bengalensis 1990 A couple seen in the Bislig marshes. Endemic race philippensis
    Black-faced Coucal  Centropus melanops  * E 1990 Heard daily in PICOP forest (Mindanao) and Rajah Sikatuna NP (Bohol) but only seen twice at the latter site (race banken).
    Eastern Grass-Owl  Tyto longimembris  * 1990 One seen over the Bislig marshes. Endemic race amauonota
    [ Luzon Scops-Owl  Otus longicornis E 1990 Heard each night we owled on Mt Polis but not seen so not counted ]
    [ Mindanao Scops-Owl  Otus mirus E 1990 Heard every night around Mt Katanglad camp but did not respond to tapes. It has a hollow, steady rhythm ]
    Philippine Scops-Owl  Otus megalotis  * E/
    1990 One seenin flashlight as it responded to tape near camp on Mt Katanglad; my notes describe it as a "mid-sized Scops; uniform in pattern; rusty-brown; witha soft bark call." Others heard another at Rajah Sikatuna NP on Bohol. Birds on Mindanao and on Bohol are in the everetti complex. It is possible that 3 species are represented in the current species but further information needed
    Palawan Scops-Owl  Otus fuliginosus  * E/
    1990 One calledin with tape and seen exceptionally well in Ben King's light near Balsahan. My notes say: "The owl is quite a large scops-owl with yellow eyes & ear tufts. Rather rufescent-tawny in color without much of a facial discalthough has white borders to outer edge of face. Pale orangey breast with fine streaks."
    Philippine Hawk-Owl   Ninox philippensis  * E 1990 Two seen well (more heard) in Rajah Sikatuna NP on Bohol; race centralis. These are "brown Ninox with heavy blurry streaks below & white prominently around facial disk. The call has a W. Screech-Owl quality but in hoots, not quavers."
    Philippine Frogmouth  Batrachostomus septimus  * E 1990 One seen nicely in King's light in response to tape near camp on Mt Katanglad. Also heard and glimpsed in Rajah Sikatuna NP on Bohol (both of race septimus). My notes from Katanglad describe it as "a very large plain-faced tawny one with 'Medussa-like' spikes on head; superb views at 9:30 pm."
    Javan Frogmouth  Batrachostomus javensis  * 1990 One very well seen in response to tape (and in King's light) on Balsahan trail on Palawan. This is race chaseni; considered by some to be a separate species. My notes read: "The frogmouth is a smaller one than the Sumatra Short-tailed [seen two years previous]. Quite reddish above with large white scapuler(?) spots. Plain rusty head and very broad bill. Tail rather short & narrow."
    Great Eared-Nightjar  Eurostopodus macrotis  * 1990 Heard nightly on Mt Katanglad and at Rajah Sikatuna NP on Bohol but only seen once at the former locale; endemic nominate race macrotis
    Large-tailed Nightjar  Caprimulgus macrurus 1990 A female seen each night owling on Palawan; endemic race johnsoni
    Philippine Nightjar  Caprimulgus manillensis  * E 1990 One seen on Mt Katanglad where heard nightly. Also heard at Rajah Sikatuna NP on Bohol

    Glossy Swiftlet  Aerodramus esculenta
    1990 Fairly common on Palawan, on Mt Katanglad (race bagobo), and around Mt Pollis in north Luzon. The marginata race (sometimes split as Grey-rumped Swiftlet) occurs in south Luzon and central Philippines; it does not seem that I saw it.Some trip reports have claimed it from Mt Pollis but this appears to bein error.
    Pygmy Swiftlet  Aerodramus troglodytes  * E 1990 Common: recorded at Mt Makiling & Quezon NP (Luzon) & Palawan & Bohol& PICOP (Mindanao)
    Philippine Swiftlet  Aerodramus mearnsi  * E 1990 This is the high elevation swiftlet on Mt Katanglad where a few were seen daily
    Uniform Swiftlet  Aerodramus vanikorensis 1990 Regularly observed in fair numbers at Mt Makiling & Manila & Banaue (Luzon); PICOP forest (Mindanao) and also Palawan and Bohol (see below). My notes for the first day in the American cemetery in Manila describe it as "uniformly gray without a pale rump; has a slightly paler throat (more like Vaux's than Chimney but not as pale as Vaux's); and a moderately forked tail." I read Dickinson's (1989) paper on Philippine swiftlets on the plane to Palawan and decided it was vanikorensis (a bird I'd seen in New Guinea).There were four species of swiftlets on Palawan that my notes describeas: "a mid-sized grayish one with long tail which is forked (Uniform Swiftlet); a bit smaller very blackish one with square tail and uniform rump (Black-nest Swiftlet?); and a very tiny fork-tailed swiftlet with distinct white belly (Pygmy Swfitlet)" and the next day "mid-sized swifts with pale rumps (Edible-nest Swiftlet)." Some authorities split the Palawan race of Uniform (palawanensis) as a separate species (Palawan Swiftlet). Some also splitthe race in central Philippines (amelis) as a separate species (Gray Swiftlet); these were seen regularly in Rajah Sikatuna NP on Bohol. HBW and Dickinson (2003) and the 2d ed of Swifts by Chantler all continue to lump these two into vanikorensis. There do not seem to be any genetic studies as yet.
    Black-nest Swiftlet  Aerodramus maxima 1990 A few over the river on the Balsahan trail in Palawan were thought to be this species; see details above under Uniform Swiftlet (but recent field guide suggests it is a rarity and perhaps these were A. mearnsi)
    Edible-nest Swiftlet  Aerodramus fuciphaga 1990 About a dozen around the Puerto Princesa fish ponds; description above under Uniform Swiftlet. The race here is germani, often included with a few other races to form A. germani [German's Swiftlet] as a separate species. For the moment the 2d ed of Chantler's Swifts & Dickinson (2003) & HBW treat it conservatively.
    Purple Needletail  Hirundapus celebensis  * 1990 On the hike down from the Mt Katanglad camp "the very large & all dark-appearing needletail was Purple Needletail" to quote my notes
    Asian Palm-Swift  Cypsiurus balasiensi 1990 Common at Bagoinigo fish ponds near Davao (Mindanao). Others had more in PICOP forest and Quezon NP
    Whiskered Treeswift  Hemiprocne comata 1990 Regularly observedin small numbers PICOP forest on Mindanao
    Philippine Trogon  Harpactes ardens  * E 1990 Regularly observed in small numbers at Rajah Sikatuna NP (Bohol) where up to 6 on one day (race linae) and a male and a female studied on different days in PICOPforest (race ardens; sketch in my notes)
    Asian Palm-Swift over Bagoinigo fish ponds near Davao, Mindanao
    Common Kingfisher roosting in mangroves, Puerto Princesa, Palawan
    Common Kingfisher Alcedo atthis 1990 A couple each day on Palawan including Garceliano Beach & Balsahan trail (race benegalensis)
    Indigo-banded Kingfisher Alcedo cyanopecta * E 1990 Two were alonga rushing river about 20km south of Banaue, Luzon; apparently a regular stake-out spot (nominate race)
    Stork-billed Kingfisher Pelargopsis capensis * 1990 One in fields along Iwahig penal colony road on Palawan; endemic race gouldi
    Collared Kingfisher Halcyon chloris 1990 Seen daily on Palwan; also Manila Bay; PICOP; and on Bohol; endemic race collaris
    White-throated Kingfisher Halcyon smyrnensis 1990 Regularly observed in small numbers at PICOP (Mindanao) and Banaue (Luzon); another at Rajah Sikatuna NP (Bohol); all of widespread Philippine race gularis
    [ Spotted Kingfisher Actenoides lindsayi E 1990 I saw the hind-end of one flying away on Mt Makiling; the view was too poor to count. I put a lot of effort into seeing others and also in search of Blue-capped Kingfisher A. hombroni that was said to be regular in the canyon below the Mt Katanglad camp but never connected. Both were bad misses ]
    Luzon Hornbill Penelopides manillae * E 1990 Small parties (8-10/day) seen at Quezon NP, Luzon (nominate race). Back in 1990 this was lumped with 3 other taxa to form a widespread Philippine endemic Tarictic Hornbill P. panini. As it turned out I saw 2 of the 4 to gain 'armchair ticks' later on range
    Mindanao Hornbill Penelopides affinis * E 1990 Two observations during 5 day at PICOP forest, Mindanao (nominate race), and a few seen or heard daily at Rajah Sikatuna NP, Bohol (samarensis). The best views were of an adult and youngster at PICOP:"A pale head/necked adult which was toying with a begging all-dark juv;the adult coughed up a berry but re-swallowed it. Back in 1990 this was lumped with 3 other taxa to form a widespread Philippine endemic Tarictic Hornbill P. panini. As it turned out I saw 2 of the 4 to gain 'armchair ticks' later but based mostly on range. Some also split the race samarensis (which I saw on Bohol) as a separate species, but HBW says this is questionable and only does a 4-way split in the Philippines.
    Writhed Hornbill Aceros leucocephalus * E/
    1990 A few (2-4/day) seen on 3 of 5 days in PICOP lowland forest, Mindanao
    Palawan Hornbill Anthracoceros marchei * E/
    1990 A few seen or heard daily on the Balsahan trail, Palawan. My notes read: "I'd like to say that this hornbill is all black except for an all-white tail and a huge palebill with big casque." This species has apparently been on the decline since 1990
    Rufous Hornbill Buceros hydrocorax * E/
    1990 Seen daily at PICOP (2-8/day; race mindanensis) and also seen at Quezon NP (Luzon; race hydrocorax)
    Coppersmith Barbet Megalaima haemacephala 1990 Frequently heard at PICOP forest (Mindanao) and Quezon NP (Luzon); the only ones seen were a pair excavating a nest hole in PICOP (photos; race mindanensis); photo on Asian Barbets family page
    Philippine Woodpecker  Dendrocopos maculatus* E 1990 One or two seen daily on Mt Katanglad; heard at PICOP [others saw more]
    White-bellied Woodpecker  Dryocopus javensis  * 1990 One on Balsahan trail (Palawan) and then almost daily at PICOP (Mindanao); one male at PICOP was drilling an apparent nest hole
    Common Flameback  Dinopium javanense 1990 Two along the river at Balsahan (Palawan)
    Greater Flameback  Chrysocolaptes lucidus * 1990 Scattered single birds: on Palawan (erythrocephalus); on Mt Katanglad (montanus); and at Rajah Sikatuna NP on Bohol (rufopunctatis)
    Great Slaty Woodpecker  Mulleripicus funebris  * 1990 One seen in the forest along the Balsahan trail  (Palawan; nominate race)
    Sooty Woodpecker  Mulleripicus funebris  * E 1990 Very nice views of one female at Quezon NP (Luzon; nominate race). I was alone in the woods when I came upon the "entirely sooty-gray" woodpecker with "tiny white specks on face/throat" and a "black tail with white shafts." It was "very large and long-necked" recalling the huge size of Great Slaty seen previously on Palawan
    Hooded Pitta  Pitta sordida  * 1990 One seen (and I eventried to photograph it) in the forest near Balsahan on Palawan; endemic race palawanensis
    Red-bellied Pitta  Pitta erythrogaster  * 1990 This gorgeous pitta was seen on two days when I was alone in Rajah Sikatuna NP (Bohol) and I saw others near Balsahan (Palawan); in PICOP forest (Mindinao; tapedin by King); and in Quezon NP (Luzon). Endemic race erythrogaster
    Golden-bellied Gerygone  Gerygone sulphurea 1990 Only recorded at American Cemetary (Manila) where common.
    White-breasted Woodswallow  Artamus leucorynchus 1990 Widespread in small numbers: Davao & PICOP (Mindanao) & Rajah Sikatuna NP (Bohol) & Quezon NP (Luzon)
    Bar-bellied Cuckoo-shrike  Coracina striata 1990 Pairs daily in the forest on Palawan; one male in PICOP forest on Mindanao
    Blackish Cuckoo-shrike  Coracina coerulescens  * E 1990 One in Quezon NP (Luzon) after I had missed it the first day there (nominate race)
    Black-bibbed Cicadabird  Coracina mindanensis  * E/
    1900 Three birds scattered between two days in PICOP forest in lowland Mindanao (nominate race)
    McGregor's Cuckoo-shrike  Coracina mcgregori  * E/
    1990 A pair of these very snazzy birds on Mt Katanglad in mossy forest; my notes read: "They are shy, slow, canopy birds and the neatest of the family so far. Silky black head/breast sharply contrasts with white belly/crissum. Black head gives way to soft sooty-gray back/rump/tail/wings; latter havelong white patch on coverts. Call is like a loud whistled siskin."
    Black-and-white Triller  Lalage melanoleuca  * E 1990 Two at Rajah Sikatuna NP (Bohol)
    Pied Triller  Lalage nigra 1990 Scattered birds in open areas: American Cemetary (Manila); Puerto Princesa fish ponds (Palawan); PICOP forest and Davao (Mindanao); race chilensis
    Fiery Minivet  Pericrocotus igneus  * NT 1990 Groups of 2 and then 3 in forest at Balsahan (Palawan)
    Scarlet Minivet  Pericrocotus flammeus 1990 Small numbers in PICOP forest (Mindanao); endemic race gonzalesii
    Mangrove Whistler  Pachycephala cinerea 1990 Three along the Balsahan trail on the day I spent mostly alone on Palawan (race plateni). Ben King was at that time splitting "Philippine Whistler P. plateni" from P. cinerea (a species I had previously seen on Bali) so I thought my Palawan bird was lifer. Kenneth Parkes has since published his split of P. cinera that retains the Palawan plateni in Mangrove Whistler butsplits the other Philippine populations into two species: Green-backed Whistler  P. albiventris (Luzon) and White-vented Whistler  P. homeyeri (Mindanao & Visayans). I did not see the latter species on the 1990 trip "Philippine Whistler P. plateni" but my notes describe the "olivey back" that is characteristic of the now-split taxon
    Green-backed Whistler  Pachycephala albiventris  * E 1990 One seen on Mt Polis (Luzon). At the time this was considered by King to bea race of the previous species
    Yellow-bellied Whistler  Pachycephala philippinensis * E 1990 Afew scattered from Mt Katanglad (Mindanao; race apoensis) to PICOP to RajahSikatuna NP (Bohol; race boholensis) to Mt Makiling (Luzon; race philippinensis)
    Brown Shrike  Lanius cristatus 1990 Common everywhere in small numbers; highest counts (15/day) at American Cemetery in Manila
    Long-tailed Shrike  Lanius schach 1990 Regularly observed in montane habitats: Mt Katanglad & Mt Polis; also one on Cebu. Endemic race nasutus
    Mountain (Gray-capped) Shrike  Lanius validirostris  * E/
    1990 Oneor two each day on Mt Polis. My notes read: "The other really nice bird was the endemic shrike (variously called Mountain; Strong-billed; or Gray-headed).It's a snappy small compact shrike with short but thick bill. It has a well-defined black mask (forecrown & lores & to auriculars) well set off from a white face/throat. It has white underparts with well-defined bright rufous wash to flanks. Upperparts lead gray; slightlypaler on crown and gradually becoming darker to rump/tail." Endemic race validirostris
    Philippine Oriole  Oriolus steerii * E 1990 A couple on two days in PICOP forest (Mindanao)
    Black-naped Oriole  Oriolus chinensis 1990 Common: recorded at Balsahan (Palawan) & Rajah Sikatuna NP (Bohol) & PICOP (Mindanao; race yamamurae)
    Ashy Drongo  Dicrurus leucophaeus 1990 Three along Balsahan trail (Palawan)
    Balicassiao  Dicrurus balicassius  * E 1990 Seen only at Quezon NP (Luzon) although it is a widespread endemic. One was carrying nest material; nominate race
    Hair-crested Drongo  Dicrurus hottentottus 1990 Common on Palawan (palawansis) & Bohol (samarensis) & lowland Mindanao (striatus). Some (e.g., White & Bruce 1986) considered the races on Bohol and Mindanao to be subspecies of Spangled Drongo  D. bracteatus. They also split drongos in Sumatra and the Moluccas as separate species. This approach was rejected by Dickinson et al. (1991) in their annotated list of Philippine birds, and also by Dickinson (2003) in his world checklist. Hair-crested Drongo ranges from SE Asia through the Philippines and Borneo to the Lesser Sundas & Timor. Spangled Drongo inhabitats Halmahera, New Guinea, and Australia.
    Blue Fantail  Rhipidura superciliaris  * E 1990 One seen in PICOP forest (Mindanao; race apo) but heard only by me at Rajah SikatunaNP (Bohol; other saw there; race samarensis)
    Blue-headed Fantail  Rhipidura cyaniceps  * E 1990 A few seen daily at Mt Makiling & Quezon NP; also on Mt Polis (where recorded daily by the group but just one by me; race cyaniceps)
    Black-and-cinnamon Fantail  Rhipidura nigrocinnamomea  * E 1990 Common montane species in flocks on Mt Katanglad & Mt Apo (both Mindanao; race huchinsoni)
    Pied Fantail  Rhipidura javanica 1990 Common at American Cemetary (Manila) and a few also seen on Palawan & Davao (Mindanao) & on Cebu; race nigritorquis
    Black-naped Monarch  Hypothymis azurea 1990 Widely scattered: recorded on Palawan and at PICOP & Rajah Sikatuna NP (Bohol) & Mt Makiling (Luzon)
    Rufous Paradise-Flycatcher  Terpsiphone cinnamomea  * E 1990 A single bird taped in & seen in PICOP lowland forest (Mindanao; race cinnamomea)
    Blue Paradise-Flycatcher  Terpsiphone cyanescens  * E 1990 Two seen on the day I spent alone on the Balsahan trail (Palawan)
    Slender-billed Crow  Corvus enca 1990 Common on Palawan (pusillus) but less so in PICOP forest
    Large-billed Crow  Corvus macrorhynchos 1990 Just a very few in PICOP forest (Minadano)
    Plain Martin  Riparia paludicola 1990 Five along the Ifugoa River south of Banaue (Luzon)
    Barn Swallow  Hirundo rustica 1990 Common throughout: recorded on all islands and at almost all sites
    Pacific Swallow  Hirundo tahitica 1990 Widely distributed: Davao and PICOP (Mindanao) & Bohol & Luzon; race javanica
    Striated Swallow  Hirundo striolata 1990 Singles at Baclayton (Bohol) and Banaue (Luzon)
    Elegant Tit  Pardaliparus elegans  * E 1990 A few daily on Mt Katanglad (Mindanao) and at Quezon NP (Luzon)
    Sulphur-billed Nuthatch  Sitta oenochlamys  * E 1990 Numbers daily on Mt Katanglad and Mt Apo (Mindanao); another on Mt Polis (Luzon). Some lump this with Velvet-fronted Nuthatch S. frontalis
    Yellow-wattled Bulbul  Pycnonotus urostictus  * E 1990 A few daily in PICOP forest on Mindanao (race philippensis)
    Yellow-vented Bulbul  Pycnonotus goiavier 1990 Common in many lowlands: including around Manila and throughout Mindanao but missing from Palawan where absent
    Olive-winged Bulbul  Pycnonotus plumosus 1990 Three in forest along Balsahan trail (Palawan); endemic race cinereifrons
    Gray-cheeked Bulbul  Alophoixus bres 1990 Common along Balsahan trail (Palawan); endemic race frater
    Sulphur-bellied Bulbul  Ixos palawanensis  * E 1990 Two along Balsahan trail (Palawan)
    Philippine Bulbul  Ixos philippinus  * E 1990 Common everywhere [except Palawan where absent]. Races are philippinus (Luzon) and saturatior (Mindanao & Cebu & Bohol)
    Yellowish Bulbul  Ixos everetti  * E 1990 Common in PICOP forest on Mindanao
    Zitting Cisticola  Cisticola juncidis 1990 One at the Puerto Princesa fish ponds (Palawan; race nigrostriata); another at marsh near Bislig (Mindanao;race tinnabulans); and lots around Candaba swamp (Luzon)
    Tawny Grassbird  Megalurus timoriensis * 1990 Seen or heard daily on Mt Katanglad but best views on Mt Apo (race alopex)
    Striated Grassbird  Megalurus palustris 1990 Common in disturbed areas on Mt Katanglad & Mt Apo and at Bislig marsh (all Mindanao; race forbesi) and at Candaba marsh (Luzon)
    Luzon Bush-Warbler  Cettia seebohmi * E 1990 Heard commonly on Mt Polis but only one seen nicely (in response to tape). Back in 1990 this was lumped with the next species but was clearly separable on voice
    Long-tailed Bush-Warbler  Bradypterus caudatus * E 1990 Common on Mt Katanglad; two nicely seen in response to tape during our first day there
    Oriental Reed-Warbler  Acrocephalus orientalis * 1990 This wasthe big Acro at the edge of Manila Bay (across from the Hyatt) that I worked on my first day; full description in my notes. Later in the trip Ben King called birds at Bislig and Candaba Marsh this species but I think that was in error (see below)
    Clamorous Reed-Warbler  Acrocephalus stentoreus 1990 I wrote full details on an Acro at the Puerto Princesa fish ponds (Palawan). Now (using the new field guide in 2005) these match this species reasonably well. I thus add it to the list; it had been left unidentified and this species unrecorded in 1990. I also now find that other trip reports state this was the common Acro at the Bislig and Candaba marshes. My notes show Acros were common both places but were apparently misidentified back then as orientalis.
    Streaked Reed-Warbler Acrocephalus sorphophilus  * VU 1990 Two seen at the Candaba marshes (Luzon) which are apparently among the species primary wintering locales. My notes describe it as "smaller than Oriental [=now I think this means Clamorous] and slimmer, with more delicate bills. Rather rich unmarked tawny to sides of breast, rest of underparts unmarked and paler, Head dominated by prominent buffy spercilium bordered above & below by black; crown finely streaked; upperparts towny-brown with dark feather centers to back/scaps, forming streak of dark blothes (or 'speckles')."
    Arctic Warbler  Phylloscopus borealis * 1990 Others claimed this species at PICOP but I was unconvinced. I was content with views obtained at Rajah Sikatuna (Bohol; details in notes) and Mt Makiling (Luzon). This is supposed to be a common wintering species in the Philippines
    Philippine Leaf-Warbler  Phylloscopus olivaceus * E 1990 Singles seen on a couple days in PICOP lowland forest (Mindanao)
    Mountain Leaf-Warbler  Phylloscopus trivirgatus 1990 Common at Mt Katanglad & Mt Apo (Mindanao) and on Mt Polis (Luzon)
    Mountain Tailorbird  Orthotomus cuculatus 1990 Several heard daily at Mt Polis; I had previously photographed this species on Borneo
    Rufous-headed Tailorbird  Orthotomus heterolaemus * E 1990 As I never learned the call I recorded only singles daily on Mt Katanglad & Mt Apo (Mindanao) but it is said to be common but more heard than seen
    Gray-backed Tailorbird  Orthotomus derbianus * E 1990 One on Mt Makiling and a few daily in Quezon NP (both Luzon; nominate race)
    Rufous-fronted Tailorbird  Orthotomus frontalis * E 1990 One in PICOP forest (Mindanao; nominate race) and then heard daily at Rajah Sikatuna NP (Bohol); one seen nicely in mixed flock
    Yellow-breasted Tailorbird  Orthotomus samarensis * E/
    1990 Just one seen at Rajah Sikatuna NP (Bohol) but this Visayan endemic is regular there
    Black-headed (White-faced) Tailorbird  Orthotomus nigriceps * E 1990 Only one seen after tape play-back in PICOP lowland forest; I recall King worked a long time to get us views of it. A really neat looking tailorbird; sketch in my notes
    Rufous-tailed Tailorbird  Orthotomus sericeus * 1990 Fairly common in the forest on Palawan (nominate race)
    Ashy-headed Babbler  Malacocincla cinereiceps  * E 1990 I saw four on the day spent mostly along on the Balsahan trail (Palawan)
    Melodious  (Palawan) Babbler  Malacopteron palawanense * E/
    1990 Small numbers daily on Balsahan trail (Palawan)
    [ Falcated Wren-Babbler  Ptilocichla falcata  E 1990 One heard only at Balsahan (Palawan); not counted because never seen ]
    Pygmy Babbler  Stachyris plateni  * E/
    1990 Encountered on only one day in PICOP forest when 8 seen. My notes say "size of a white-eye; upright stance in canopy flock; brown head (with many white streaks) sharply cut-off from white belly"
    Black-crowned Babbler  Stachyris nigrocapitata  * E 1990 A few with a mixed flock at Rajah Sikatuna NP (Bohol) and three more at Quezon NP (Luzon)
    Chestnut-faced Babbler  Stachyris whiteheadi  * E 1990 Two seen (more heard) on Mt Polis (Luzon; nominate race)
    Striped Tit-Babbler  Macronous gularis  * 1990 Common onPalawan; endemic race woodi
    Brown Tit-Babbler  Macronous striaticeps  * E 1990 Common at PICOP and Mt Katanglad (race mindanensis; Mindanao) and regular but less common at Rajah Sikatuna NP (Bohol)
    Lowland (Philippine) White-eye  Zosterops meyeni  * E 1990 Common in the American Cemetery in Manila and that was it (nominate race). Apparently an open-country bird
    Everett's White-eye  Zosterops everetti  1990 Common at PICOP (Mindanao; race basilanicus) and Rajah Sikatuna NP (Bohol)
    Yellowish White-eye  Zosterops nigrorum  * E 1990 Small flock at Mt Makiling; another along river south of Banaue (both Luzon; race inominnatus)
    Mountain White-eye  Zosterops montanus 1990 Very common on Mt Katanglad & Mt Apo (Mindanao; race vulcani) and Mt Polis (Luzon; race whiteheadi)
    Black-masked White-eye  Lophozosterops goodfellowi  * E 1990 A few were recorded daily by the group on Mt Katanglad but I saw only one
    Cinnamon Ibon  Hypocryptadius cinnamomeus  * E 1990 Fairly common (up to 8/day) on  Mt Katanglad & Mt Apo (Mindanao). Ben King coined the term "Ibon" but also applied it to the previous species as well. Only this one seems to have caught on
    Asian Fairy-bluebird  Irena puella 1990 One or two daily in forests on Palawan; endemic face tweedalei
    Philippine Fairy-bluebird  Irena cyanogaster  * E 1990 Uncommon: one at PICOP (Mindanao) and a few seen at Rajah Sikatuna NP (Bohol; race ellae)
    Citrine Canary-flycatcher  Culicicapa helianthea  * 1990 After missing it on Mt Katanglad I saw single birds on Mt Apo (Mindanao) and Mt Polis (Luzon). This is a member of the newly created family Stenostiridae [Beresford et al. (2005) Proc. R. Soc. B. 272: 849-858]
    Rufous-tailed Jungle-Flycatcher  Rhinomyias ruficauda  * 1990 I found one in the forest at Rajah Sikatuna NP (Bohol; endemic race boholensis); it was present at the same spot each day and I showed it to the whole group
    Gray-streaked Flycatcher  Muscicapa griseisticta  * 1990 Oneor two daily on Mt Katanglad and a couple in PICOP were wintering locally
    Little Pied Flycatcher  Ficedula westermanni 1990 Regularly observed in small numbers on Mt Katanglad & Mt Apo (Mindanao; race westermanni) and Mt Polis (Luzon; endemic race rabori)
    Snowy-browed Flycatcher  Ficedula hyperythra * 1990 A male of the Mindanao subspecies montigena was watched on Mt Katanglad. It is described in detail in my notes when I though it was Mugimaki Flycatcher M. mugimaki to inadequate field guides. With the new guide it is readily sorted out
    Island Flycatcher  Eumyias panayensis  * 1990 A few daily on Mt Katanglad (race nigriloris) and Mt Polis (race nigrimentalis); sometimes called "Mountain Verditer Flycatcher"
    Palawan Blue-Flycatcher  Cyornis lemprieri  * E/
    1990 A male one day and three more another day on the Balsahan trail. Back in1990 this was lumped with Hill Blue Flycatcher C. banyumas
    White-browed Shortwing  Brachypteryx montana 1990 Although rather common on Mt Katanglad & Mt Apo (Mindanao) and Mt Polis (Luzon) and heard daily; I glimpsed but one on Mt Polis
    Oriental Magpie-Robin  Copsychus saularis 1990 One in Manila (across from Hyatt) and another on Cebu
    White-browed Shama  Copsychus luzoniensis  * E 1990 One seen at Mt Makiling; heard in Quezon NP (all Luzon; race luzoniensis)
    White-vented (Palawan) Shama  Copsychus niger  * E 1990 Heard daily on Balsahan trail but elusive; finally taped in the final day for views of two birds
    Black Shama  Copsychus cebuensis  * E/
    1990 Two different birds seen well on Cebu; both called in by tapes. Perlas Magsalay is studying this species and my notes summarized some of what she told me. "The Shamais found only in habitat that mixes dense brushy undergrowth and standsof bamboo. It nests in the latter. Traditionally it is thought that when Cebu's forests were cut the species 'adapted' to the secondary growth.[Ben King thinks of it as a 'trash bird in the village.']  I think it very likely that it is a bamboo specialist and always was; though the forestsare gone the bamboo remains and so does the Shama (in small numbers). In this habitat P. Magsalay tells me it averages 10 pairs per square km but her now-complete survey of east Cebu found only 50 pairs. She still needs to survey west of the mountainous 'backbone' of Cebu. It is clearly a very scarce species — quite possibly very specialized — and not at all a 'trash village bird'."
    Siberian Rubythroat Erithicus calliope 1990 One male in scrub across from the Hyatt hotel on Manila Bay
    Luzon Redstart  Rhyacornis bicolor  * E/
    1990 A pair along the river below the pass on Mt Polis (Luzon). I got a series of distant photos that were (at the time) some of the few photos taken of the bird in the wild.
    Luzon Redstart (left side of photo) along rushing stream on Mt Polis, Luzon (March 1990)
    Pied Bushchat  Saxicola caprata 1990 A bird of disturbed areas: male in American Cemetery (Manila) and also a few around Banaue (both on Luzon; nominate race)
    Blue Rock-Thrush  Monticola solitarius 1990 One along the river south of Banaue; another daily on Mt Polis (Luzon; race philippinensis)
    Scaly Ground-Thrush  Zoothera dauma 1990 One seen on Mt Polis (Luzon)
    Island Thrush  Turdus poliocephalus 1990 I saw two on Mt Polis (Luzon; endemic race thomassoni)
    Brown-headed Thrush  Turdus chrysolaus * 1990 Two at the American Cemetery in Manila looked like "washedout version of an Am. Robin, but head uniformly brown. Breast & flanks rufous-orange (paler than AMRO) but white belly extends as a point up into the lower breast (as on Rufous-backed Robin)."
    Eyebrowed Thrush  Turdus obscurus 1990 I saw one on Mt Katanglad (others recorded in daily there) and two on Mt Polis
    Stripe-sided  Rhabdornis  Rhabdornis mysticalis  * E 1990 Regularly observed in small numbers in PICOP (Mindinao; race minor) and in Quezon NP (Luzon; nominate race)
    Short-tailed Starling Aplonis minor 1990 A few daily on Mt Katanglad and also seen on Mt Apo (Mindanao); endemic race todayensis
    Asian Glossy Starling Aplonis panayensis 1990 Common but spotty at some lowland locales: Palawan & Davao (Mindanao) & Rajah Sikatuna NP (Bohol); all nominate subspecies
    Chestnut-cheeked Starling Sturnia philippensis * 1990 Small flock of this migrant in the American Cemetery in Manila
    Apo Myna Basilornis miranda * E/
    1990 An adult and a fledgling were at high elevations (above 1500m) on Mt Katanglad (sketch and details innotes). I had really wanted to see this endemic
    Coleto Sarcops calvus * E 1990 A few noted at lower slopes of Mt Katanglad; scattered birds in PICOP forest (Mindano) and Quezon NP (Luzon) but common daily at Rajah Sikatuna NP (Bohol)
    Philippine Leafbird Chloropsis flavipennis * E/
    1990 Not a common bird; singles seen on 3 days in PICOP forest in Mindanao lowlands
    Yellow-throated Leafbird Chloropsis palawanensis * E 1990 A lovely endemic and common along Balsahan trail (Palawan; photo)
    Yellow-throated Leafbird along Balsahan trail, Palawan
    (above; February 1990)
    Coleto in PICOP forest, lowland Mindanao (above; March 1990)
    Palawan Flowerpecker Prionochilus plateni * E 1990 Several daily on Palawan (2-4/day)
    Striped Flowerpecker Dicaeum aeruginosum * E 1990 I saw one at Balsahan (Palawan).There is some uncertainty about taxonomy. It was considered a Philippine endemic in 1990 but has been lumped by Clements' checklist with Thick-billed Flowerpecker D. agile of Asia. Dickinson (2003) retains the lumped taxa but recognizes that it may prove to be a good split, as advocated by Mann (2002)
    Olive-capped Flowerpecker Dicaeum nigrilore * E 1990 Common daily on Mt Katanglad; also seen Mt Apo (nominate race)
    Flame-crowned Flowerpecker Dicaeum anthonyi * E/
    1990 One male seen nicely on Mt Katanglad
    Bicolored Flowerpecker Dicaeum bicolor * E 1990 Scattered singles: Mt Apo & PICOP (Mindanao; nominate race) and at Quezon NP (Luzon; race inexpectatus)
    Red-keeled (Red-striped) Flowerpecker Dicaeum australe * E 1990 Our group recorded in daily PICOP forest (Mindanao; I saw only 2). Also a male on two days at Rajah Sikatuna NP (Bohol); several on Mt Makiling (Luzon)
    Orange-bellied Flowerpecker Dicaeum trigonostigma * 1990 Regularly observed in small numbers at PICOP (Mindanao; endemic race cinerigularis); Rajah Sikatuna NP (Bohol; others only here); and Quezon NP (Luzon; endemic race xanthopgium)
    Buzzing (Dull) Flowerpecker  Dicaeum hypoleucum * E 1990 Rather common daily on Mt Katanglad & Mt Apo; also a few at PICOP (all Mindanao; race pontifex). Also seen at Mt Makiling & Quezon NP (Luzon; race obscurum)
    Fire-breasted Flowerpecker Dicaeum ignipectus * 1990 A pair nicely seen on Mt Katanglad (Mindanao; race apo)
    Plain-throated (Brown-throated) Sunbird Anthreptes malacensis 1990 Just a few noted most days in PICOP forest (race griseigularis); also one seen on Palawan
    Purple-throated Sunbird Leptocoma sperata * 1990 Common at Balsahan (Palawan) and Rajah Sikutuna NP (Bohol; one seen nest-building; race trochilus); also seen Mt Katanglad & PICOP (Mindanao)
    Purple-throated Sunbird along Balsahan trail on Palawan (Feb 1990)
    Copper-throated Sunbird Leptocoma calcostetha * 1990 At least 4 around the Puerto Princesa fish ponds on Palawan
    Olive-backed Sunbird Cinnyris jugularis 1990 Common and widespread: Manila & other lowland Luzon locales; Palawan (up to 10/day; race aurora); Davao (Mindanao) & Cebu & Bohol.
    Gray-hooded Sunbird Aethopyga primigenius * E/
    1990 Single seen on two day on Mt Katanglad; then two more on Mt Apo (Mindanao; nominate race)
    Flaming Sunbird Aethopyga flagrans * E 1990 One fine male seen on Mt Polis (Luzon)
    Metallic-winged Sunbird Aethopyga pulcherrima * E 1990 A few seen at Mt Katanglad (Mindanao; race pucherrima) and not uncommon on Mt Polis (race jeffrey)
    Lovely Sunbird Aethopyga shelleyi * E 1990 A male one day, and two more the next, at Balsahan (Palawan); see next species regarding taxonomy
    Handsome Sunbird Aethopyga bella  * E 1990 Widely scattered individuals: PICOP forest (Mindanao; race bella) and Mt Makling & Quezon NP (Luzon; race minuta); others also had it on Bohol. This is a recent split from Lovely Sunbird, proposed by Mann (2002) and adopted by Dickinson (2003). Lovely Sunbird is now restricted to Palawan & Balabac; the rest of the Philippine range is now this taxa. This was not anticipated by the Kennedy et al. (2000) field guide.
    Little Spiderhunter Arachnothera longirostra 1990 A few every day on Palawan and recorded by others daily at PICOP (where I saw a couple; race flammifera)
    Naked-faced Spiderhunter Arachnothera clarae * E 1990 Two on a day inside PICOP forest were it (nominate race)
    Eastern Yellow Wagtail Motacilla tschutschensis 1990 Common on Palawan and Bohol. This recent AOU split was considered a part of Yellow Wagtail M. flava in 1990. This i.d. years later is based on likelihood and range and the reports of others who have visited recently
    Gray Wagtail Motacilla cinerea 1990 Very widespread and a few were recorded almost everywhere (except not seen on Bohol)
    White Wagtail Motacilla alba 1990 One along Manila Bay on my first day was an adult of the ocularis race; details in my notes. Then there was the bird on the sandbar in the river below Banaue (Luzon) that I felt was M. [a.] lugens [Black-backed Wagtail] because it had a large white wing patch in flight. Sketch and details in my notes. At the time there were no records of lugens from the Philippines. Nuytemans (1998) later reported this taxa from Luzon, which has recently (2005) been relumped with M. alba by the AOU.
    Paddyfield Pipit Anthus rufulus 1990 Scattered birds: Palawan and lower slopes of Mt Katanglad (Mindanao). At the time this was lumped with Richard's Pipit A. novaeseelandiae
    Olive-backed Pipit Anthus hodgsoni 1990 A few daily on Mt Polis (Luzon)
    [ Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus 1990 Common everywhere in disturbed and urban habitats. An introduced species not counted in totals.]
    [ Red Avadavat Amandava amandava 1990 One on shores of Manila Bay; I assumed it was a local escapee. Not counted]
    Scaly-breasted Munia Lonchura punctulata 1990 Small flocks and individuals scattered in lowland Luzon: Manila and around Banaue
    White-bellied Munia Lonchura leucogastra* 1990 Small flocks common in open country around Palawan fish ponds (race palawana) and at Davao & Bislig marsh (on Mindanao; endemic race manueli)
    Black-headed (Chestnut) Munia Lonchura malacca 1990 One on Palawan; a few more at the Bislig marsh (Mindanao; race jagori)
    White-cheeked Bullfinch Pyrrhula leucogenis * E 1990 One watched with scope on Mt Katanglad (above 1500m; details in notes; race steerei)

    MAMMALS: several unidentified bats, rats, and squirrels, but the only mammal identified was:
    Long-tailed Macaque 1990 Daily in the forest on Palawan; heard & glimpsed in Quezon NP (Luzon)

    PHOTOS: All photos on this page are © 2005 Don Roberson; all rights reserved.

    Literature cited:

    Chantler, P. 2000. Swifts: A Guide to the Swifts and Treeswifts of the World. 2d ed. Yale Univ. Press, New Haven, CT.

    Clements, J.F. 1991. Birds of the World: a Check List. 4th ed. Ibis Publishing, Vista, CA.

    Dickinson, E.C., ed. 2003. The Howard & Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World. 3d ed. Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ.

    Dickinson, E.C., et al. 1991. The Birds of the Philippines: an Annotated Checklist. BOU Check-list ser. no. 12, British Ornithol. Union, Tring, U.K.

    Kennedy, R.S., P.C. Gonzales, E.C. Dickinson, H.C. Miranda, Jr., and T.H. Fisher. 2000. A Guide of the Birds of the Philippines. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford.

    Mann, C.F. 2002. Systematic notes of Asian birds. 28: Taxonomic comments on some south-east Asian members of the family Nectariniidae. Zool. Verhand., Leiden, 340: 1790-189.

    Nuytemans, H. 1998. Notes on Philippine birds: interesting records from northern Luzon and Batan Island.. Forktail 14: 37-40.

    White, C.M.N., and M.D. Gruce. 1986. The Birds of Wallacea. BOU Check-list ser. no. 7, British Ornithol. Union, Tring, U.K.






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