TRIP REPORTS: BIRDING THE WORLD

BORNEO July-August 2003: annotated trip list
    with selected additional comments on an August 1988 trip

by Don Roberson [creagrus@montereybay.com]


This is an annotated list of 240 native species that Rita Carratello and I recorded in Sabah & Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, during 25 days in July-August 2003; see the companion trip report for more general details. Included are the 5 species Rita observed that I did not, only one of which [Striped Wren-Babbler] would have been a lifer for me. Also included are various species that were heard but not seen. If I had prior experience with the bird and easily recognized its call (e.g., Mountain Scops-Owl) it was included in the totals and detailed on the main list. If, however, the heard bird would have been a lifer if seen, it is shown in brackets and bears a single asterisk. These were not included in our totals. Likewise, birds heard only but whose calls I would not have known had Wangkong not pointed them out to me are not counted, even if they would not have been lifers (e.g., White-crowned Hornbill). These are also in brackets but do not have an asterisk. Some 41 birds seen were lifers for me (** on list; 17% of total). The status given is that which we recorded, and does not necessarily match the true status since we did not know vocalizations well (although we did learn some during the trip, and our local guides knew many others). At the end of the list I also annotate the 6 non-native introduced birds encountered. Next is a short summary of great bird ticks and serious dips:

HIGHLIGHTS:

  • 4 Pittas seen, including Giant and endemic Blue-headed & Black-and-crimson Pittas
  • 5 Broadbills seen, including spectacular endemic Whitehead's Broadbill
  • Bornean Bristlehead
  • good views of difficult Mt. Kinabalu specialties: Red-breasted Partridge, Whitehead's Trogon, Mountain Wren-Babbler, Bornean Stubtail
  • 24 of 36 endemics in range, incl. stringy look at Kinabalu Friendly Warbler
  • male Great Argus & Tabon Scrubfowl
  • good selection of other key SE Asia species, incl. Rufous-collared Kingfisher, Great Slaty Woodpecker, Jambu Fruit-Dove, 7 hornbills (incl.. Helmeted in full vocal performance), 16 bulbuls, 25 babblers & 7 spiderhunters
  • SERIOUS DIPS:     In the annotated list , I give complete details on our 2003 visit. I had also visited Sabah in 1988 (Mt. Kinabalu & Danum Valley Field Centre only) by myself for 10 days. Many of the common birds were seen back then and their status has not changed. I only include information about the 1988 trip if there was something special or different to report, or if I saw a species back then that we did not see in 2003. If so, I give a full annotation of that bird. For example, for Bat Hawk it is shown that none were definitely recorded in 2003, but a second row gives my observations from 1988. Of particular note are Fruithunter, Everett's Thrush & Whitehead's Spiderhunter, all seen on Mt. Kinabalu in 1988 but missed on our 2003 trip. I'm fortunate that with the two visits, I now have the full "Whitehead's trinity."

    SOME INTERESTING COMPARISONS:
    Nobody sees all the great birds of Borneo on a single trip. My short 1988 trip was quite different than our 2003 visit; fortunately for me, they complemented each other nicely. It is interesting to compare the results of various recent trips to get a feeling on just which birds are difficult and which can be found with more predictability. The chart below compares six recent (2000-2002) trips and our 2003 trip with reference to 30 birds of high interest. 20 of these are Bornean endemics (* on the list) and 10 are simply much-wanted species over a variety of bird families. The reports we compared are all listed on the intro page with links to most of them on-line. They are:

    The second row lists the number of birding days each trip lasted. Ours, for example, was 25 days but Day 1 and Day 25 were arrival and departure days without any birding, so the "birding days" are reduced to 23. Actually, another 4 birding days were in Sarawak (without any of these specialties) so it could be said we had 19 birding days in Sabah. All the other trips are Sabah only. All visited Mt. Kinabalu, Poring Hot Springs, and Danum Valley. Everyone except the Rik Addison group also visited Sepilok, Sukau, and an offshore islet (Manukan, Sipidan, or Tiga); the Addison group spent more time at Danum Valley than any other group.
        In the chart below "1" means the bird was seen and "0" means it was missed. A "h" means one or more was heard but not seen; these count as "0" in the totals and percentages. A "d" means the group didn't go to a site within range (counted as "0;" this applies only to the Addison et al. group). A "v" means that the species was recorded elsewhere on the trip but not in Borneo (e.g., several groups also went to mainland Malaysia) or was recorded on a prior trip but not this one (i.e., if in our column). A "v" also counts as a "0" in the totals. The percentages in the final column indicate what percent of the 7 trips the species was actually seen.
     
    Observers:
     RA+ 
      JH 
      DM 
    M&GW
      SM 
    SW/TM
    DR/RC
     
    Birding days:
    23
    23
    17
    27
    15
    26
    23
     
    Storm's Stork
    d
    1
    1
    1
    1
    1
    0
    71%
    Mountain Serpent-Eagle*
    1
    1
    1
    1
    0
    1
    0
    71%
    Red-breasted Partridge*
    1
    1
    0
    h
    h
    h
    1
    43%
    Crimson-headed Partridge*
    1
    1
    0
    1
    1
    1
    h
    71%
    Tabon Scrubfowl
    d
    1
    0
    1
    1
    1
    1
    71%
    Jambu Fruit-Dove
    0
    0
    1
    0
    0
    0
    1
    29%
    Whitehead's Trogon*
    1
    1
    1
    1
    1
    1
    1
    100%
    Rufous-collared Kingfisher
    1
    1
    0
    0
    0
    1
    1
    57%
    Red-bearded Bee-eater
    1
    v
    1
    1
    h
    v
    1
    57%
    Helmeted Hornbill
    1
    1
    h
    1
    1
    1
    1
    86%
    Mountain Barbet*
    1
    h
    1
    1
    h
    h
    h
    43%
    Great Slaty Woodpecker
    1
    h
    0
    1
    1
    0
    1
    57%
    Green Broadbill
    1
    1
    0
    1
    1
    1
    1
    86%
    Whitehead's Broadbill*
    1
    1
    0
    1
    1
    1
    1
    86%
    Giant Pitta
    1
    h
    h
    0
    1
    1
    1
    57%
    Blue-headed Pitta*
    1
    1
    1
    h
    1
    1
    1
    86%
    Blue-banded Pitta*
    h
    h
    0
    0
    0
    1
    h
    14%
    Black-and-crimson Pitta*
    1
    1
    h
    1
    h
    1
    1
    71%
    Bornean Bristlehead*
    1
    1
    h
    1
    1
    1
    1
    86%
    Straw-headed Bulbul
    0
    v
    1
    1
    1
    1
    1
    71%
    Mountain Wren-Babbler*
    1
    1
    1
    0
    1
    1
    1
    86%
    Bornean Wren-Babbler*
    0
    1
    1
    h
    0
    1
    v
    43%
    Black-throated Wren-Babbler*
    1
    0
    1
    0
    0
    1
    1
    57%
    Everett's Thrush*
    1
    1
    0
    0
    0
    1
    v
    43%
    Fruithunter*
    1
    1
    0
    1
    0
    0
    v
    43%
    Bornean Stubtail*
    1
    1
    0
    h
    1
    1
    1
    71%
    Kinabalu Friendly Warbler*
    0
    1
    1
    h
    0
    0
    1
    43%
    Pygmy White-eye*
    0
    0
    0
    1
    0
    0
    0
    14%
    Bornean Spiderhunter*
    0
    1
    0
    0
    1
    0
    0
    29%
    Whitehead's Spiderhunter*
    0
    1
    0
    h
    0
    0
    v
    14%
    TOTAL
    20
    21
    12
    16
    15
    20
    19
    58%

    As to endemics, there are 41 in Borneo under most versions of current taxonomy. Four are generally not present at the locales that any of us visited (Bulwer's Pheasant, Bornean Peacock-Pheasant, Dulit Frogmouth, Black Oriole) and another (Hose's Broadbill) seems to be essentially a vagrant to these locales. This means that only 36 endemics are within the typical range of a Borneo bird trip hitting the "usual" sites. Two species (Bornean Ground-Cuckoo, Bornean Barbet) may be regular at Danum Valley and Poring, respectively, but are in such low densities or so difficult to see that none of the 7 birding groups found them (two groups "possibly" heard the barbet).
        Of the 34 remaining endemics, all groups found these 13 species: White-fronted Falconet, Gold-naped Barbet, Bornean Blue-Flycatcher, White-crowned Shama, Bornean Whistler, Bare-headed & Chestnut-capped Laughingthrush, Chestnut-crested Yuhina, Yellow-rumped & Black-sided Flowerpecker, Mountain Blackeye, Bornean Treepie, and Dusky Munia. All but one (Massie) also had Eye-browed Jungle-Flycatcher. The remaining 20 endemics are on the chart above; one of them (Whitehead's Trogon) was actually seen by all groups but can easily be missed (e.g., I missed it in 1988).

    ABBREVIATIONS:

    Miri = scrub & gardens next to Miri airport Poring = Poring Hot Springs in Gunung Kinabalu park BRL = Borneo Rainforest Lodge, Danum Valley Conservation Area
    Mulu = Mulu Nat'l Park in Sarawak & environs Sepilok = Sepilok Forest Reserve near Sandakan DVFC = Danum Valley Field Centre, Danum Valley Conservation Area
    GK = Gunung Kinabalu hdqs. & above = Mt. Kinabalu Sukau = environs of Sukau on Kinabatangan River & tributaries Pulau Tiga = islet of P. Tiga & environs, incl. Pulau Ular
    BIRDS
    Non-passerines:
    Anhinga melanogaster DARTER 2003 Common along Kinabatangan tributaries at Sukau; one on Danum River at BRL on 2 of 8 days there.
    Ardea sumatrana GREAT-BILLED HERON 2003 One was hunting small rapids in the Danum River on one day at BRL.
    Ardea purpurea PURPLE HERON 2003 Regular along rivers at Sukau; another flew over the Kota Kinabalu airport as we were loading luggage.
    Ardea alba GREAT EGRET 2003 Common at Sukau and on the drive from Kota Kinabalu to Kuala Penyu.
    Egretta garzetta LITTLE EGRET 2003 Several seen on the drive from Kota Kinabalu to Kuala Penyu.
    Bubulcus ibis CATTLE EGRET 2003 Small flocks with cattle seen on the drive from Kota Kinabalu to Kuala Penyu.
    Butorides striatus STRIATED HERON 2003 Scattered birds along the bayshore at Kota Kinabalu; on Pulau Tiga & enroute; and at Sukau.
    Leptoptilos javanicus LESSER ADJUTANT 2003 Our only storks were 5 different adjutants in flight over Kinabatangan River at Sukau.
    Aviceda jerdoni JERDON'S BAZA 2003 Singles perched at Sukau and BRL.
    Macheiramphus alcinus BAT HAWK 2003 None seen this trip for sure but a small raptor filmed by Rita in flight at Deer Cave in Mulu during the bat exodus was likely this species.
    1988 One at dusk over Segama River on several days at DVFC.
    Haliastur indus BRAHMINY KITE 2003 Common at Sukau and along coast south of Kota Kinabalu; one imm. at BRL.
    Haliaeetus leucogaster WHITE-BELLIED SEA-EAGLE 2003 Two perched along Kinabatangan River at Sukau; one near nest on Pulau Ular.
    Ichthyophaga humilis LESSER FISH-EAGLE 2003 One along a side tributary at Sukau.
    Spilornis cheela CRESTED SERPENT-EAGLE 2003 Scatteried birds at Gomantong Cave; Sukau; and BRL. At latter site one seen sleeping in canopy on night drive.
    Accipiter trivirgatus CRESTED GOSHAWK 2003 Pair perched in dead tree at Sukau; Rita had singles at Mulu & BRL.
    Ictinaetus malayensis BLACK EAGLE 2003 One soaring over the forest seen from BRL at lunch.
    Spizaetus cirrhatus CHANGEABLE HAWK-EAGLE 2003 A dark morph flew right over us on the Kinabatangan River at Sukau.
    Spizaetus alboniger BLYTH'S HAWK-EAGLE 2003 One dark morph in flight over access right at BRL.
    Spizaetus nanus WALLACE'S HAWK-EAGLE 2003 One perched in riverside tree at Sukau; a distant eagle at BRL could also have been this species.
    1988 One was perched right at DVFC for photos.
    Microhierax fringillarius BLACK-THIGHED FALCONET 2003 Rita saw one in flight along the edge of the Mulu headquarters clearing.
    Microhierax latifrons WHITE-FRONTED FALCONET ** 2003 This Bornean endemic was seen several times: male perched along Kinabatangan River at Sukau; pair on dead tree during drive from BRL to DVFC; female from canopy walkway at BRL and a male eating a lizard along the access road there.
    Megapodius cumingii TABON SCRUBFOWL ** 2003 We had at least 6 during a late afternoon march around half of Pulau Tiga; best views were flight views.
    Coturnix chinensis BLUE-BREASTED (King) Quail 2003 None.
    1988 One female flushed around hdqs at GK.
    Arborophila hyperythra RED-BREASTED PARTRIDGE ** 2003 Heard every day on GK and two very good viewings: male taped in near start of Kiau View trail; and then four including a calling male were crossing the summit road on an early morning drive up the mountain. We stopped the van and Rita got video of the calling bird!
    [Arborophila charltonii CHESTNUT-NECKLACED PARTRIDGE *] 2003 Heard at Sukau & BRL but efforts to call or tape them in didn't succeed. Not included in totals.
    [Haematortyx sanguiniceps CRIMSON-HEADED PARTRIDGE *] 2003 Heard several times at GK but never very close and always down steep slopes. Was seen the day before we arrived at BRL by Wangkong but not even heard there during our visit. Not included in totals.
    Lophura ignita CRESTED FIREBACK 2003 We got a nice chuckle out of Wheatley (1996) who compares DVFC to BRL and says: "the birds are the same at both sites except for Crested Fireback which is not usually seen near the Lodge." Oh yeah? Most days at BRL we saw a small party of these pheasants crossing the road by the Lodge and often feeding directly under some of the chalets! Rita got nice video.
    Argusianus argus GREAT ARGUS 2003 Male Great Argus on trail at BRL (right).

    Two males with full plumage were on their display grounds and watched at leisure; Rita got video. Both males we saw were on known dancing grounds right on trails at BRL. The birds could be heard calling for a mile each morning. We didn't see displays but the males were striding about or standing or sitting on their favored spots. They have become habituated to hikers here, although they do slip into the forest when one approaches too closely.

    1988 A female watched striding through the forest well out the Main trail at DVFC was a major highlight of this first trip. Back then no one knew where the dancing grounds were although calling males were oft-heard.
    Amaurornis phoenicurus WHITE-BREASTED WATERHEN 2003 Singles at Miri & Sepilok & Poring
    Actitis hypoleucos COMMON SANDPIPER 2003 A couple early migrants on Kinabatangan River at Sukau.
    Sterna bergii GREAT CRESTED TERN 2003 Flock of 50+ on sandbar between Pulau Tiga & Pulau Ular.
    Sterna sumatrana BLACK-NAPED TERN 2003 Flock of 30+ on sandbar between Pulau Tiga & Pulau Ular. Terns at dusk over the bay off Kota Kinabalu & another at Miri were too far away to i.d. for sure could have been Gull-billed S. niloticaor another species.
    Streptopelia chinensis SPOTTED DOVE 2003 Common roadside bird in coastal lowlands.
    Macropygia ruficeps LITTLE CUCKOO-DOVE 2003 Heard & seen daily at GK where a lot of courting was going on.
    Chalcophaps indica EMERALD DOVE 2003 Scattered individuals in flight in lightly wooded country: Mulu & Gomantong & Sukau.
    Treron olax LITTLE GREEN-PIGEON ** 2003 Rather common at Sukau; a pair perched high in dead tree at BRL.
    Treron capellei LARGE GREEN PIGEON 2003 None.
    1988 Couple each day at DVFC.
    Ducula aenea GREEN IMPERIAL-PIGEON 2003 None.
    1988 Small flocks at DVFC.
    Ptilinopus jambu JAMBU FRUIT-DOVE ** 2003 A male perched in the canopy along BRL access road was an unexpected treat early one morning.
    Ducula badia MOUNTAIN IMPERIAL-PIGEON 2003 A very few daily at GK; one was watched calling from a subcanopy limb.
    Ducula bicolor PIED IMPERIAL-PIGEON 2003 At least 2 were flushed at the summit of tiny Pulau Ular and they then circled the islet.
    Psittinus cyanurus BLUE-RUMPED PARROT ** 2003 One flew across the resort clearing at Pulau Tiga.
    Psittacula longicauda LONG-TAILED PARAKEET ** 2003 One over resort at Sepilok and small flocks overhead at Sukau.
    Loriculus galgulus BLUE-CROWNED HANGING-PARROT 2003 Small flock at Sepilok resort & then a few daily feeding on flowering bushes along access road at BRL. Some really close views of a very pretty little bird.
    Cuculus sparverioides LARGE HAWK-CUCKOO 2003 None apparently not calling at GK while we were there.
    1988 Heard daily at GK and one seen briefly. This is a resident race (bocki).
    Cacomantis merulinus PLAINTIVE CUCKOO 2003 Heard calling daily at Mulu.
    Surniculus lugubris ASIAN DRONGO-CUCKOO 2003 None.
    1988 A calling male watched inside the forest at DVFC.
    Phaenicophaeus diardi BLACK-BELLIED MALKOHA ** 2003 Singles at Mulu & BRL; the latter was watched in the canopy along access road for quite some time.
    Phaenicophaeus chlorophaeus RAFFLES' MALKOHA 2003 This small malkoha was seen twice at BRL; an adult with fledgling was watched in the garden at Poring.
    Phaenicophaeus javanicus RED-BILLED MALKOHA 2003 A single bird nicely seen along access road at BRL.
    Phaenicophaeus curvirostris CHESTNUT-BREASTED MALKOHA 2003 The most common malkoha encountered daily at Poring & about every other day at BRL; also at Sepilok & Sukau.
    Centropus sinensis GREATER COUCAL 2003 One in scrub at Miri and others flew across roads at BRL & elsewhere. Did not have a sniff at any other coucals.
    Otus spilocephalus MOUNTAIN SCOPS-OWL 2003 Heard every night from our cabin at GK. Other birders tried to see it without success.
    1988 Heard at GK most nights and one found at a day roost. My notes read: "far in forest I flushed a mid-sized owl (perhaps just larger than W. Screech-Owl?) to a branch just above eye level for long views (I walked away from it). It was just fledged and had down still adhering to top of head & nape & back. Looked scops-owl in shape with elongated face with wide-set short ear tufts; yellow eyes; buffy forecrown to bill; buffy-cream underparts (perhaps still natal plumage?). The only clearly grown feathers were: remiges -- blackish barred with white; scaps/tertials -- rufous-brown very thinly barred & blackish; and tail -- rusty-brown & thinly barred black. Legs & feet large; gray-horn colored. It was mobbed by a Mt. Leaf-Warbler ..."
    Ketupa ketupu BUFFY FISH-OWL 2003 Two seen at BRL: a juv. spot-lighted during a night drive and an adult perched on a large canopy branch during the day on the Sapa Babandril trail. Spotted by Wangkong; Rita got video.
    1988 A pair present nightly on the badminton court at DVFC; I got some okay flash photos (right).
    Strix leptogrammica BROWN WOOD-OWL 2003 Fabulous views of a perched owl during a night drive at BRL; others heard at night during our week-long stay there.
    1988 One whistled in for good views at night by Dennis Yong along the Main trail in the forest at DVFC.
    Hydrochous gigas WATERFALL SWIFT 2003 Two large all-dark swifts seen from the overlook of a GK waterfall were apparently this species.
    Aerodramus esculenta GLOSSY SWIFTLET 2003 Common and widespread; essentially seen daily. Most abundant at Mulu but lots also up on GK; fewer at BRL but still some over the river at all times. It is possible or even probable that some on GK were Cave Swiftlet A. linchii (said to be sympatric here) but I don't know how to separate them. Reference to Chantler (2000) does not help with this particular i.d. problem.
    Collocalia salangana MOSSY-NEST SWIFTLET ** 2003 The small dark swiftlets are the biggest i.d. problem in Borneo. These swiftlets are abundant and at places like Mulu & Sukau one sees thousands each day; many more swiftlets than all the other species of birds combined! Almost none of the swiftlets can be identified which means that most of the birds one sees every day are unidentifiable. I know no other place in the world where this odd situation occurs. Presumably we saw many Mossy-nest Swiftlets but identified just one for sure: one sitting on a very obvious mossy nest at the entrance of Gomantong Cave. Other mossy nests were scattered about higher in the cave but it was hard to tell whether they were occupied or not.
    Collocalia maximus BLACK-NEST SWIFTLET 2003 The most abundant swiftlet nesting in Gomantong Cave where we saw hundreds of nests and many occupied. If we assume that similar ratios apply to the swiftlets over the Kinabatangan River not far away then we saw thousands of Black-nest Swiftlets daily. I don't know the ratio at Mulu where there were also thousands of swiftlets overhead all day. There did seem to be at least two different sizes (a subtle distinction) among them; the larger ones seem likely to be this species per Chantler (2000).
    Collocalia fuciphagus EDIBLE-NEST SWIFTLET 2003 Perhaps the least common of the swiftlets nesting in Gomantong Cave (we saw about 15 nests but only a couple were occupied) although there are said to be portions of the cave where many more breed. These make the prime white nests so sought after for bird's nest soup and each nest is worth lots of money (Black-nest Swiftlet nests are also harvested but are worth a lot less). Small swiftlets over the Danum River at BRL with paler brownish rump bands also seem likely to be this species. Chantler (2000) says that German's Swiftlet C. germani also occurs in north Borneo (otherwise the range is s. China through Philippines) which  further complicates the issue.
    Rhaphidura leucopygialis SILVER-RUMPED NEEDLETAIL 2003 After the problematic small dark swiftlets it was really nice to see small swifts that are easy to i.d.! Four were over the pond at our Sepilok resort and then several were seen from our balcony at BRL as they foraged low over the Danum River.
    Hirundapus giganteus BROWN-BACKED NEEDLETAIL 2003 A small group (4-5) of these huge swifts were feeding among the little swiftlets on the Kinabatangan River at Sukau; they dipped down to the water surface giving us great views.
    Cypsiurus balasiensis ASIAN PALM-SWIFT 2003 The only ones encountered were a handful at Poring and on Pulau Tiga.
    Apus nipalensis HOUSE SWIFT 2003 A swiftlet of cities; nesting next to the Hyatt Hotel in Kota Kinabalu where dozens were streaming in at dusk; also recorded Lahad Datu and Kuala Penyu.
    Hemiprocne longipennis GRAY-RUMPED TREESWIFT 2003 A few daily over the Danum River at BRL until our final day when a flock of a dozen appeared.
    Hemiprocne comata WHISKERED TREESWIFT 2003 One or two seen perched up in the canopy on most days at BRL; one pair perched on the crossbars of the canopy walkway for nice photos. I was alone and being very quiet at the time, otherwise they were skittish. We never saw any on the walkway supports when other people were present.
    Harpactes kasumba RED-NAPED TROGON ** 2003 Wangkong located a pair including a calling male along the access road at BRL. A very striking bird!
    Harpactes diardii DIARD'S TROGON 2003 Single males were inside the forest at DVFC & BRL; the latter was photo'd with flash (right). Males have deep pink nuchal bands.
    Harpactes whiteheadi WHITEHEAD'S TROGON ** 2003 The discovery of a gorgeous male along the Silau-Silau trail at GK was as exciting as any moment during the trip. Rita and I observed it for a half-hour as it watched for prey from a variety of perches; it was incredible how this bright bird could 'disappear' for awhile in the thick mossy forest. Rita got short but very nice snippets of video.
    Harpactes orrhophaeus CINNAMON-RUMPED TROGON 2003 None.
    1988 One inside the forest at DVFC.
    Harpactes duvaucelii SCARLET-RUMPED TROGON 2003 This small trogon was the most common trogon at BRL & DVFC; pairs or sometimes a male and 2 females were encountered about every other day.
    Alcedo meninting BLUE-EARED KINGFISHER ** 2003 A bright streak of glowing blue that's the typical look at this little guy. One was hunting the little pools at Mulu resort. But good views were had along tributaries of Kinabatangan River at Sukau and a couple times along rivulets at BRL.
    Ceyx erithacus ORIENTAL DWARF (Black-backed) KINGFISHER ** 2003 Good looks at two midgets along the Tenangan tributary at Sukau and another at BRL revealed that all showed extensive introgression between "Black-backed" C. erithacus and "Rufous-backed" C. rufidorsa types. It seems that most Bornean birds are such a mixture: they have rufous backs but dark wings and an intermediate facial pattern. They don't seem to represent "good" biological species in n. Borneo although apparently the situation is different on mainland Malaysia.
    Pelargopsis capensis STORK-BILLED KINGFISHER 2003 This big but rather shy kingfisher was along bigger rivers at Mulu & Sukau & BRL. Never common but quite conspicuous.
    Todirhamphus chloris COLLARED KINGFISHER 2003 A kingfisher of mangroves and disturbed habitat recorded at Miri and on various drives through palm oil plantations (e.g. between Sandakan & Lahad Datu); another on Pulau Ular.
    Actenoides concretus RUFOUS-COLLARED KINGFISHER 2003 This attractive forest-dwelling kingfisher was watched from the trail above the "bat caves" at Poring. I had stopped to try to talk to Rita on the walkie-talkie; when I turned to continue my hike there was a lovely female sitting on a branch over the trail and almost too close to focus the bins! I studied her seemingly forever as she looked about for prey. Eventually I walked up to almost touching distance and she flew a short ways down the trail to another perch; showing her bright aquamarine rump in flight. Again her perch choice blocked the trail so I watched & viewed until I almost felt forced to move on in the muggy heat. A fine personal experience! My only previous experience was with one taped in by Ben King in Sumatra. Finding my own was much better.
    Nyctyornis amictus RED-BEARDED BEE-EATER 2003 This is another crippler! Just a spectacularly odd bird. We heard birds several times at BRL but always way up in the canopy and we couldn't locate them. But Wangkong's spot-on imitation got one in for close but brief views at DVFC.
    Merops viridis BLUE-THROATED BEE-EATER ** 2003 Rather common along the Kinabatangan River at Sukau; generally perching high on dead snags and sallying out for insects.
    Eurystomus orientalis DOLLARBIRD 2003 Common along the Kinabatangan River at Sukau, sitting up on dead snags.
    Anthracoceros albirostris ORIENTAL PIED-HORNBILL 2003 This was the most widespread hornbill. It was on Pulau Tiga; common in small flocks at Sukau; and recorded at BRL (but not as common there). Photo'd several times.
    Anthracoceros malayanus BLACK HORNBILL 2003 Pairs scattered in n. Borneo lowlands: Sepilok & BRL & Sukau & Gomantong Caves.
    Buceros rhinoceros RHINOCEROS HORNBILL 2003 One of the 'great' hornbills of s.e. Asia: a pair flew over the Kinabatangan River at Sukau (photo) and then seen or heard daily at BRL. Males have quite a variety of 'horns;' some are more 'knob-like' than 'horn-like.'
    Buceros vigil HELMETED HORNBILL 2003 The full-out call of this spectacular hornbill is my choice for the 'best bird vocalization' in the world. Deep measured hoots slowly accelerate until the bird breaks out into loud maniacal laughter; when heard the first time the change in tone is so unexpected that it is a real shocker. It is sooo fabulous to hear this while walking in beautiful rainforest; and we heard it most days at BRL. Early one morning we caught a ride to the entrance gate at BRL and walked back. During that walk we had incredible views of a pair perched (distant male perched, right) and in flight and calling. Wow!
    Anorrhinus galeritus BUSHY-CRESTED HORNBILL 2003 An uncommon hornbill encountered several times at BRL and again at Gomantong Caves.
    [Aceros comatus WHITE-CROWNED HORNBILL] 2003 Heard only on 2 of 8 daysat BRL where Wangkong pointed out distantly calling small flocks. Despite his efforts we never got views. Fortunately I had seen this handsome species on Sumatra back in '88.
    Aceros corrugatus WRINKLED HORNBILL 2003 A couple pairs along Kinabatangan River at Sukau; and a couple more pairs seen at BRL. Rather uncommon.
    Aceros undulatus WREATHED HORNBILL 2003 This was the common hornbill at Mulu; it was also reasonably common at BRL.
    Megalaima chrysopogon GOLD-WHISKERED BARBET 2003 Probably heard daily at BRL & DVFC but we had difficulty with lowland barbet calls. Wangkong did point out a few calls. Fortunately I had seen birds in Sumatra on my prior Greater Sundas trip. We also probably heard Red-crowned Barbet M. rafflesii in lowlands but we were never sure and didn't have comparative tapes.
    Megalaima mystacophanos RED-THROATED BARBET ** 2003 Heard daily at Mulu and a few times at BRL. I had the good luck to find & photograph one eating fruit in a small tree adjacent to boardwalks at Mulu resort.
    [Megalaima monticola MOUNTAIN BARBET *] 2003 This Bornean endemic was heard almost daily at GK. There were overlooks on the summit road and on Kiva View trail where one was calling throughout the day but well downslope. I had this same experience in 1988; I still haven't seen this potential lifer.
    Megalaima henricii YELLOW-CROWNED BARBET 2003 Heard most days at BRL; with major effort (lying on my back on the boardwalk and staring straight up into the canopy) I was able to watch two feeding on fruit in the BRL garden.
    Megalaima pulcherrima GOLDEN-NAPED BARBET 2003 This is the 'easy' Bornean endemic barbet. It is heard constantly at GK. Yet seeing one is another matter! THE spot is the gate for the GK hike at the end of the summit road. Here they are very used to people and we had great views every day we were there. Rita has fantastic video of a calling bird (Rita's vid-cap right). As they call the males use puffed-out throat air-sacs that recall tree frogs or American grouse!
    Megalaima australis BLUE-EARED BARBET 2003 The common small barbet heard throughout the day in lowland forest at Mulu & Sepilok & Sukau & BRL. Actually seen a few times at Mulu resort and at Sukau.
    [Megalaima eximia BORNEAN BARBET *] 2003 A barbet calling at Poring could have been this Bornean endemic; like most groups I couldn't see it and therefore missed this elusive species. I'm not even sure that it was this species but the call sounded suspiciously like the field guide description; I did not have tapes to review.
    Calorhamphus fuliginosus BROWN BARBET 2003 Small party of 8 of these odd barbets were feeding in the canopy along the Kinabatangan River at Sukau.
    Sasia abnormis RUFOUS PICULET 2003 Singles of this really neat little bird were with mixed undergrowth flocks at Mulu & Sukau & on several days at BRL.
    Picus mentalis CHECKER-THROATED WOODPECKER 2003 This upland woodpecker was encountered in flocks a couple times at GK.
    Dinopium rafflesii OLIVE-BACKED WOODPECKER 2003 One pair along the access road at BRL.
    Blythipicus rubiginosus MAROON WOODPECKER 2003 Singles encountered at Mulu & on both days at Poring.
    Reinwardtipicus validus ORANGE-BACKED WOODPECKER 2003 This is a great woodpecker. They travel is small family groups and we had several fine views: from the boardwalk at Mulu; inside the forest at GK; and twice at BRL.
    Meiglyptes tukki BUFF-NECKED WOODPECKER 2003 Rita video'd a party of 4 in the Poring garden; she had more at BRL before I finally saw a single one there.
    Hemicircus concretus GRAY-AND-BUFF WOODPECKER 2003 One female along the access road at BRL.
    Mulleripicus pulverulentus GREAT SLATY WOODPECKER 2003 A loose flock of 5 of these huge woodpeckers flew over the access road early one morning at BRL.
    Passerines:
    [Corydon sumatranus DUSKY BROADBILL *] 2003 Vocalizations were heard at DVFC and pointed out to us by Wangkong but the bird was not seen. Not counted in list totals.
    Cymbirhynchus macrorhynchos BLACK-AND-RED BROADBILL ** 2003 One perched in a riverside tree was a highlight of our Mulu visit; other birders there found nests along a side tributary. Rita had another in the garden at Poring. At BRL we often saw 2-3 in the garden and photo'd one from the boardwalk next to our room (right).
    Eurylaimus javanicus BANDED BROADBILL ** 2003 Once the call was learned this proved to be widespread in lowlands of n.e. Sabah. Views were more difficult. Despite extensive tape-work we got only fleeting glimpses at Sepilok but then had stunning views from our boat at Sukau; a pair responded nicely along the Tenangan tributary. At BRL a few were heard most days but only once was another pair seen.
    Eurylaimus ochromalus BLACK-AND-YELLOW BROADBILL 2003 Once the callwas learned we found this was a common and widespread lowland species. We heard multiple birds almost every day in habitat: Mulu (taped in a pair); Poring; Sepilok; entrance road to Gomantong Cave (photo); and BRL (saw birds on several days -- including from canopy walkway -- and each observation was a treat: a really pretty bird).
    Calyptomena viridis GREEN BROADBILL ** 2003 This much-wanted species was seen on 3 days at BRL and heard on others. The call is easy to overlook until it is learned but then the bird seemed to be widely distributed in the forest at low densities. Wangkong whistled or taped nice males in for good views twice; a gorgeous bird. Another flew across the access road for quick views without our prompting.
    Calyptomena whiteheadi WHITEHEAD'S BROADBILL ** 2003 With apologies to a couple of pittas I consider this THE bird of the trip. An incredibly drop-dead-gorgeous crippler! I am reminded of a neon-green cock-'o-the-rock. Here's the story: by Day 4 at GK we were despairing of seeing this much-wanted endemic. We'd tried almost all the spots mentioned in prior trip reports but there was a "tip" from 3 years ago that a pair had been seen at milepost 3.5 on the summit road. So we noted where this spot was on our early morning bus ride up the mountain to the gate. After hiking down the Bukit Ular trail (which ends at about the 3km post) we hiked back uphill to 3.5 just on the off-chance for this broadbill. I played the tape and got a response! With judicious tape-playing a pair flew downhill across the road; the male finally worked his way back to the road for startlingly good views. He called and bowed; called and bowed; wow! But he flew back uphill before Rita could retrieve her video camera (set up on a tripod up the road a bit) and she still complains bitterly how the experience wasn't "perfect" because it's not on film! As with all taping during the trip I was very careful to not "over-tape" and left the male calling and "winning" the vocal battle with his unseen "rival." I'd seriously toyed with including Whitehead's Broadbill among my "top 50 birds of the world" before; it surely belongs to be there. This Bornean endemic is rare and local and unbelievably impressive. Apparently there are times when it is found more easily on GK; we felt very fortunate with our lone encounter.
    Pitta caerulea GIANT PITTA ** 2003 This candidate for "bird of the trip" was nudged out by the preceding species but remains a top prize. Had we had close views of a male things may have been different but my view was somewhat distant and brief (but still impressive!) of a female that was whistled in to the edge of the access road at BRL. With Wangkong's whistling we heard Giant Pittas on 4 of the 6 days we had him as a guide at BRL. We spent over an hour within a few feet of a female on the farside of the Danum bridge one day. Wangkong saw it (the reason we know its sex) but neither Rita nor I got a glimpse in very dense vegetation. It was the late afternoon of the next day when Wangkong whistled in a different female to the downslope edge of the BRL access road. It took almost a half-hour for it to move uphill and then hop up into a bush downslope from me (Rita was not with us that afternoon) for reasonable but too-brief views. Wangkong says that August is a good month for vocalizing Giant Pittas; it is vocal at a time when other pittas are not. Showler (1992) had a very different impression from DVFC; he says he heard none in August.
    Pitta guajana BANDED PITTA 2003 We had just one: Wangkong heard one along the BRL access road and led us into the undergrowth where we sat down and he whistled the bird in. It was a beautiful and striking female; Rita was even able to get a quick video of it as it circled the three of us stealthily. I'd seen one years ago on Java but this is a different race (schwaneri; both it and the nominate birds on e. Java were once described as separate species).
    Pitta baudii BLUE-HEADED PITTA ** 2003 The other strong candidate for "bird of the trip;" an astonishingly striking and attractive species that I saw but once despite having heard a half-dozen. Several were calling in the morning along the Tenangan tributary at Sukau but none could be lured to the river's edge to be seen from our small boat. At one spot we landed so I could try to see one in the undergrowth near the muddy bank but this failed. At BRL this species was heard on 5 of 8 days. One spot on the Sapa Babandril trail looked very good to me (gulley with logs and undergrowth) so I tried a tape and got a response. But we couldn't see the bird from the trail. The next day (alone) I walked into the forest here and positioned myself at the end of a downed log and played the tape. The male responded again and after a couple shots of the tape he hopped up on the other end of the log for astonishing views. He puffed his body into a pear shape initially and then hopped down the log towards me until noticing my presence. And then away but not before I had grand looks. This was a young male with the sky-blue crown not yet completely filled in but otherwise in full adult male plumage. We tried this spot for Rita a couple days later but the bird had already moved. We heard it (or another) a half kilometer away in another stream valley but couldn't get a look. Blue-headed Pitta is a Bornean endemic and is as beautiful as any pitta I've ever encountered.
    [Pitta sordida HOODED PITTA] 2003 Birds were calling every few hundred yards in floodplain forest at Sukau along the Tenangan tributary. It is surely common here. Rita & I had seen several others elsewhere so did not feel too bad when efforts to draw one to river's edge were unsuccessful.
    [Pitta arquata BLUE-BANDED PITTA *] 2003 This small pitta is a Bornean endemic. One was apparently heard along the access road to BRL but extensive efforts to see it failed and the species is not included in our trip total. This elusive species has been recorded at BRL a few times and it was Wangkong who picked out its call a soft even whistle without any hint of an upslurred finish. The call of Black-and-crimson Pitta is very similar but rises just slightly at the end. We had both species calling at the same time (Wangkong was able to whistle in the closer Black-and-crimson!) but the Blue-banded refused to come closer even though it seemed to be calling back to Wangkong's whistled imitation. I can't entirely rule out an aberrant call from an odd Black-and-crimson but it was clearly a different individual and was always consistent in its vocal quality. It goes down as a lost cause. I'd also done the exhausting hike to Langanan Falls at Poring Hot Springs and spent nearly two hours in the bamboo there with a tape but without any responses at all. Blue-banded is said to be a foothill species (and the Poring location fits that profile) but BRL is at only 90m elevation. It is hilly and not flat lowlands.
    Pitta ussheri BLACK-AND-CRIMSON (Black-headed) PITTA 2003 This is a fairly recent split from Garnet Pitta P. granatina; about half of the literature calls it Black-headed Pitta but this is a very confusing name I prefer Black-and-crimson. It occurs in n. Borneo while Garnet occurs throughout the rest of the island. It seems to be the most common species in the Danum Valley area (BRL/DVFC) and was heard almost daily. We saw two: one that Wangkong whistled in while trying to see the Blue-banded Pitta (both were calling at the same time for good vocal comparisons) and another seen during a night drive! This bird was sleeping 4' off the ground at the edge of the access road and its rich crimson body and deep violet breast/head were gaudy in the flashlight beam. The pitta did not awaken despite the spotlight and truck-full of noisy tourists.
    1988 Heard daily and one finally seen after prolong effort. I stalked a calling bird and eventually saw it sitting up on a log. One of the highlights of this 1988 trip.
    Tephrodornis gularis LARGE WOODSHRIKE 2003 Pairs or small parties on a couple days on access road at BRL.
    Philentoma pyrhopterum RUFOUS-WINGED PHILENTOMA 2003 This skulker was heard a few times at BRL (pointed out by Wangkong) before we got views on a couple days inside the forest.
    Philentoma velatum MAROON-BREASTED PHILENTOMA 2003 A canopy species seen nicely only once at BRL. We thought we had one at Mulu but now consider that "tentative."
    Pachycephala grisola MANGROVE WHISTLER ** 2003 A pair or two around the resort on Pulau Tiga.
    Pachycephala hypoxantha BORNEAN WHISTLER 2003 This endemic was common on GK; usually with mixed flocks.
    Platylophus galericulatus CRESTED JAY 2003 This amazing jay with very un-jay-like calls was seen only by Don during his hike to Langanan Falls at Poring. We had none at Danum Valley this trip.
    1988 One inside forest at DVFC
    Platysmurus leucopterus BLACK MAGPIE 2003 Loose flocks of noisy canopy birds were encountered several times at BRL.
    Cissa thalassina SHORT-TAILED MAGPIE 2003 Common and noisy but sometimes hard to see at GK. At other times they were hopping around at roadside. A very striking bird; better than the field guides show.
    Dendrocitta cinerascens BORNEAN TREEPIE 2003 Common at GK. Now considered a Bornean endemic since split from birds on Sumatra.
    Corvus enca SLENDER-BILLED CROW 2003 Rather common at Sukau; heard at Sepilok & heard often (but rarely seen) at BRL.
    Artamus leucorynchus WHITE-BREASTED WOODSWALLOW 2003 Seen only in coastal lowlands at Miri airport and the drive to Kuala Penyu but common at these locales; conspicuous when sitting on telephone wires.
    Pityriasis gymnocephala BORNEAN BRISTLEHEAD ** 2003 This much-wanted species recently elevated to its own monotypic family was finally seen on day 5 (of 8 planned) at BRL. Three were first heard (by Wangkong) and then seen hopping about the larger limbs on tall canopy trees along the access road. We heard others both at BRL & Sepilok but they did not respond to taped calls. A major highlight of the trip.
    Coracina larvata SUNDA CUCKOO-SHRIKE 2003 Three males in a mixed flock at GK on one day.
    Coracina fimbriata LESSER CUCKOO-SHRIKE ** 2003 Single male working the canopy along access road at BRL.
    Pericrocotus flammeus  SCARLET MINIVET 2003 Small flock of distant minivets seen from canopy walkway at BRL were likely this species but i.d. is tentative.
    Pericrocotus solaris GRAY-CHINNED MINIVET 2003 Small flock near 1km mark on summit trail at GK.
    Lalage nigra PIED TRILLER 2003 None although it was expected on Pulau Tiga. We didn't bird very hard after seeing the megapode.
    1988 One at Kota Kinabalu airport.
    Hemipus hirundinaceus BLACK-WINGED FLYCATCHER-SHRIKE 2003 Singles in the canopy at Mulu resort and along access road at BRL.
    Rhipidura albicollis WHITE-THROATED FANTAIL 2003 Common in mixed flocks on GK.
    Rhipidura javanica  PIED FANTAIL 2003 Singles at Mulu & Gomantong & Sukau.
    Rhipidura perlata SPOTTED FANTAIL 2003 Regular at BRL with up to 4/day.
    Dicrurus leucophaeus ASHY DRONGO 2003 A few daily at GK where they perch up on dead limbs or light poles and are conspicuous.
    Dicrurus aeneus BRONZED DRONGO 2003 A couple at Sepilok & again at Gomantong Cave; a few also at BRL including a group of 4 by Rita.
    Dicrurus hottentottus HAIR-CRESTED DRONGO 2003 The common and noisy forest drongo at GK.
    Dicrurus paradiseus GREATER RACQUET-TAILED DRONGO 2003 A handful at Mulu & Poring & Sukau; several were males in tail molt lacking one of the racquets.
    Oriolus xanthonotus DARK-THROATED ORIOLE 2003 One male at BRL was the only one seen; others heard.
    Oriolus xanthornus BLACK-HOODED ORIOLE 2003 Males at Gomantong Cave & Sukau.
    Oriolus cruentus BLACK-AND-CRIMSON ORIOLE 2003 None although others we met during our GK stay had it.
    1988 Recorded several times at GK.
    Chloropsis sonnerati GREATER GREEN LEAFBIRD 2003 A pair at Sepilok and a female at BRL were the only ones encountered.
    Chloropsis cyanopogon LESSER GREEN LEAFBIRD 2003 The common leafbird at BRL with others at Mulu & Sukau.
    Aegithina tiphia COMMON IORA 2003 Seen at Miri and around Mulu resort.
    Aegithina viridissima GREEN IORA 2003 Pairs found at forest edge at Mulu & BRL.
    Irena puella ASIAN FAIRY-BLUEBIRD 2003 Males at Mulu & Poring and then a few daily at BRL.
    Hypothymis azurea BLACK-NAPED MONARCH 2003 A few with flocks at Mulu & BRL.
    Terpsiphone paradisi ASIAN PARADISE-FLYCATCHER 2003 Widespread in lowlands where seen singly or with mixed flocks at Mulu & Poring & Sepilok & Sukau & BRL; nice all-white males seen several times.
    Hirundo rustica BARN SWALLOW 2003 One summering bird well-seen at Miri in July. By early August possible fall arrivals were present over Kinabatangan River in good numbers (up to 30/day).
    Hirundo tahitica PACIFIC SWALLOW 2003 Common and widespread everywhere in lowlands; recently fledged juvs. at Mulu and Sukau.
    Sitta frontalis VELVET-FRONTED NUTHATCH 2003 Seen twice in large mixed flocks in forest at GK.
    Pycnonotus zeylanicus  STRAW-HEADED BULBUL ** 2003 Two perched on a short riverside bush on the Kinabatangan River; pretty neat birds for bulbuls!
    Pycnonotus melanoleucus BLACK-AND-WHITE BULBUL 2003 None
    1988 Recorded at DVFC
    Pycnonotus atriceps BLACK-HEADED BULBUL 2003 Two at Mulu and one at Sukau.
    Pycnonotus squamatus SCALY-BREASTED BULBUL ** 2003 Two eating fruit in the BRL garden posed for photos and video. Another cool bulbul.
    Pycnonotus eutilotus PUFF-BACKED BULBUL ** 2003 Two in mixed flock at Mulu.
    Pycnonotus goiavier YELLOW-VENTED BULBUL 2003 Common at Miri and also seen at Sepilok & Sukau & BRL.
    Pycnonotus plumosus OLIVE-WINGED BULBUL 2003 Supposedly common in Danum Valley and probably overlooked among similar Red-eyeds; I i.d.'d singles on two days at BRL.
    Pycnonotus simplex CREAM-VENTED BULBUL ** 2003 Good views of one wing-flicking at Mulu.
    Pycnonotus brunneus RED-EYED BULBUL 2003 Widespread and common. Noisy and conspicuous at Mulu resort & Poring & Sukau & BRL.
    Pycnonotus erythropthalmos SPECTACLED BULBUL 2003 Quiet and retiring but found at Poring & BRL at forest edge.
    Alophoixus finschii FINSCH'S BULBUL 2003 A few seen along trails at BRL.
    Alophoixus ochraceus OCHRACEOUS BULBUL 2003 Regular in forest flocks at GK.
    Alophoixus bres GRAY-CHEEKED BULBUL 2003 Only found at Mulu (including at resort) on this trip.
    Alophoixus phaeocephalus YELLOW-BELLIED BULBUL 2003 Not common but seen most days at BRL.
    Tricholestes criniger HAIRY-BACKED BULBUL 2003 Pairs encountered regularly with flocks or alone inside forest at BRL (one photo'd with flash; right) and Mulu; also recorded Sukau.
    Iole olivacea BUFF-VENTED BULBUL 2003 Pair eating fruit in the BRL garden (photo'd).
    Ixos malaccensis STREAKED BULBUL 2003 Two atop a tall dead snag at Mulu were the only observations.
    Hemixos flavala ASHY BULBUL 2003 None this trip.
    1988 Several at GK.
    Prinia flaviventris YELLOW-BELLIED PRINIA 2003 Common in an overgrown garden at Miri and heard daily along the access road into BRL. Singles were seen asleep at road's edge on several night drives at BRL; this always amused the tourists.
    Urosphena whiteheadi BORNEAN STUBTAIL 2003 Outstanding close views of one along the upper reaches of the Bukit Ular trail on GK. We'd learned the call exceptionally high-pitched and recalling Golden-crowned Kinglet and found the bird to be fairly common in the mossy forest here. A little tailless bird with personality that is mostly legs!
    Cettia vulcania SUNDA BUSH-WARBLER 2003 Common roadside bird along summit road at GK and very common at higher elevations on summit trail. Many responded to our "pishing" when trying to see the next species 7000-7300' elev.
    Bradypterus accentor FRIENDLY BUSH-WARBLER ** 2003 Two singing birds heard above 2km mark (>7000' elev) on summit trail on GK but neither seen well. One responded to tape and was glimpsed dashing across the trail but that was all. Not satisfying; bvd (better views desired).
    Orthotomus cuculatus MOUNTAIN TAILORBIRD 2003 Heard often on GK but only a few seen. On first hearing the song I did not expect a tailorbird at all!

    This Mountain Tailorbird (right) was just off the balcony of the hostel at GK in 1988.

    Orthotomus atrogularis DARK-NECKED TAILORBIRD 2003 A couple at BRL and another at Sukau; very close views of a singing bird at BRL.
    Orthotomus sericeus RUFOUS-TAILED TAILORBIRD 2003 A few daily around Royal Mulu resort and in the BRL garden.
    Orthotomus ruficeps ASHY TAILORBIRD 2003 Scattered birds from Mulu to Sepilok to Gomantong Cave to BRL.
    Phylloscopus trivirgatus MOUNTAIN WARBLER 2003 Very common in mixed flocks on GK.
    Seicercus montis YELLOW-BREASTED WARBLER 2003 Common in mixed flocks on GK.
    Rhinomyias ruficauda CHESTNUT-TAILED JUNGLE-FLYCATCHER 2003 One perched low and flycatching along the Sapa Babandril trail at BRL; watched for quite some time while trying to sort out i.d.
    Rhinomyias gularis EYEBROWED JUNGLE-FLYCATCHER ** 2003 A couple in forest at GK with mixed flocks. This is now considered a Bornean endemic since split from Philippine populations of similar taxa.
    Ficedula hyperythra SNOWY-BROWED FLYCATCHER 2003 Singles seen on 3 of 5 days on GK.
    Ficedula dumetoria RUFOUS-CHESTED FLYCATCHER ** 2003 Very snazzy little flycatcher perched low inside the forest at BRL. It was by itself on the Segama Trail.
    Eumyias thalassina VERDITER FLYCATCHER 2003 Single bird along access road at BRL.
    Eumyias indigo INDIGO FLYCATCHER 2003 A few seen daily at GK; usually with mixed feeding flocks.
    Cyornis unicolor PALE BLUE-FLYCATCHER 2003 Pair at helipad near Deer Cave in Mulu; color of Mt. Bluebird.
    Cyornis banyumas HILL BLUE-FLYCATCHER ** 2003 Male studied at close range on Sapa Babandril trail at BRL.
    Cyornis caerulatus LONG-BILLED BLUE-FLYCATCHER ** 2003 Single male in forest at BRL was hunting over small ravine.
    Cyornis turcosus MALAYSIAN BLUE-FLYCATCHER 2003 A female was perched on the map in front of BRL one day and Rita saw a male nearby the next day.
    Cyornis superbus BORNEAN BLUE-FLYCATCHER ** 2003 A male studied with a feeding flock near Bat Cave at Poring.
    Cyornis rufigastra MANGROVE BLUE-FLYCATCHER 2003 Common and vocal inside forest on Pulau Tiga.
    Muscicapella hodgsoni PYGMY BLUE-FLYCATCHER ** 2003 Male in mossy forest at 7300' elev. on GK summit trail.
    Copsychus saularis ORIENTAL MAGPIE-ROBIN 2003 Common and widespread in lowlands but not in forest. Seen from Mulu and Pulau Tiga to Poring and Sepilok and just around the buildings at BRL & DVFC.
    Copsychus stricklandii WHITE-CROWNED SHAMA 2003 Several at Poring and a pair daily in BRL garden. A Bornean endemic; Rita has nice video of a singing male.
    Trichixos pyrropyga RUFOUS-TAILED SHAMA 2003 None.
    1988 One at DVFC.
    Myophonus glaucinus SUNDA WHISTLING-THRUSH 2003 One or two daily on GK including a couple just-fledged juvs; also recorded Poring & Sepilok.
    Zoothera everetti EVERETT'S THRUSH 2003 None this trip although an appropriately sized bird flushed from the trail near the bottom of the Bukit Ular trail; this is near the site of a "stake-out" pair since 2000.
    1988 One seen well at GK. My notes read "in forest on Silau-Silau trail I flushed an Everett's Thrush for good views -- large thrush (say Swainson's Thrush size & shape) with dark even-brown crown to tail on upperparts & wings; face mottled with white as two ill-defined vertical stripes at front & back of eye (but more mottled than anything); ill-defined thin malar stripe. Whitish throat; rich chestnut-rufous breast & flanks & sides. Eye & bill black and legs gray." At the time this was a little known species. It is amusing to read a 2002 trip report (by Rik Addison et al.) that details their Everett's observation at GK and then concludes: "This pair was originally found in 2000 before then no one dreamt of seeing one. Since their discovery only a handful have successfully connected and this species remains very rare and elusive." Sorry boys.... someone actually DID see one before 2000....
    Chlamydochaera jefferyi FRUIT-HUNTER 2003 Not even a hint of one on this trip.
    1988 Great views of a male in a fruiting tree around GK headquarters. My notes read "had wonderful views of a Black-breast Triller [Fruit-hunter]. Fat pear-shaped body & pigeon-like head with facial pattern very vaguely like a flicker broad black breast crescent (more complete band than flicker); gray body & buffy head with black mask. It saw quietly and then sang mouth half-open & tongue aquiver a fast & soft & sweet trilled warble sev. seconds long; a sound that would undoubtedly be overlooked if I wasn't watching the bird." At the time there were no published details about the vocalization of this enigmatic species.
    Brachypteryx montana WHITE-BROWED SHORTWING 2003 A small spotted juv. thrush near the GK summit trail gate seems likely to have been this species.
    Enicurus ruficapillus CHESTNUT-NAPED FORKTAIL 2003 Rita video'd one at the "jacuzzi pool" at BRL. Don still is missing this species for Borneo as prior birds were elsewhere.
    Enicurus leschenaulti WHITE-CROWNED FORKTAIL 2003 Pair along river behind admin. bldg. at GK included a beautifully singing male; singles seen most days at BRL. Rita got video of a bathing male.
    Garrulax palliatus SUNDA LAUGHINGTHRUSH 2003 One small flock dashing across a GK road was it.
    Garrulax calvus BARE-HEADED LAUGHINGTHRUSH 2003 Our only observations of this Bornean endemic (now split from mainland Black Laughingthrush) was of an adult and begging juv. with a mixed flock of jays & laughingthrushes our first day on GK.
    Garrulax mitratus CHESTNUT-CAPPED LAUGHINGTHRUSH 2003 Common and noisy in flocks on GK; sometimes pure flocks and sometimes mixed. Flocks of up to 30 birds encountered.
    Trichastoma rostratum WHITE-CHESTED BABBLER ** 2003 Common and conspicuous in early morning along Tenangan tributary at Sukau where pairs work the water-edge logs and bushes. One seen in brush along edge of Danum River our last morning at BRL.
    Trichastoma bicolor FERRUGINOUS BABBLER 2003 Singing males seen on sev. days along access road at BRL; loud song but hard to get good views in thick undergrowth.
    Malacocincla sepiarium HORSFIELD'S BABBLER 2003 A few seen most days spent on trails inside the forest at BRL; these big-billed short-tailed ground babblers have a lively "personality" and are fun to watch.
    Malacocincla malaccensis SHORT-TAILED BABBLER 2003 No hint of any this trip.
    1988 Nice views of one inside forest at DVFC.
    Pellorneum pyrrogenys TEMMINCK'S BABBLER 2003 Singles seen in undergrowth on 2 days at GK on Silau-Silau trail.
    Pellorneum capistratum BLACK-CAPPED BABBLER 2003 Singles of this striking ground babbler seen by one of us on 3 of 8 days at BRL; always on or near ground inside forest.
    Malacopteron magnirostre MOUSTACHED BABBLER 2003 Just a few scattered among mid-story flocks at BRL; probably more common than our observations suggest.
    Malacopteron affine SOOTY-CAPPED BABBLER 2003 Just what is the most common mid-story and canopy babbler inside the forest at Danum Valley? Some of the other list reports imply that the next two species are in that category but we found more Sooty-capped Babblers than anything. We encountered dozens of scolding mid-story and canopy babblers every day often in bad light and always moving rapidly. We probably actually identified less than 10% of these and when we did it was usually this species. The Bornean race (phoeniceum) is brown-capped and thus looks basically uniform above; a very blah bird. They seemed also common at Mulu once we taped in a singing bird (pretty little song in minor key) to learn it. Given these observations it seems odd that some other trip reports mention seeing "one" or "two" of this abundant species in lowland forests.
    Malacopteron cinereum SCALY-CROWNED BABBLER 2003 Seemed more common at Mulu than Danum Valley but still a common species; usually in scolding pairs at or above eye-level. Dutson et al. (1991) indicated that this was the most common forest babbler in the sites they surveyed in lowlands of central Borneo (in Kalimatan).
    Malacopteron magnum RUFOUS-CROWNED BABBLER 2003 Although I had found this to be common at DVFC in 1988 it seemed decidedly less common in forest at BRL. I'm not sure whether this is actually true since we did not identify most of the canopy babblers heard or glimpsed during our visit. Other trip reports suggest this is quite a common bird but we saw only a handful this trip.
    Malacopteron albogulare GRAY-BREASTED BABBLER ** 2003 One in peat swamp forest at Mulu beyond the end of the boardwalk on the summit trail. Dutson et al. (1991) indicate it is not as rare as previously suggested and that they found it to be the 4th most common forest babbler at survey sites in Kalimantan.
    Pomatorhinus montanus CHESTNUT-BACKED SCIMITAR-BABBLER 2003 One with a mixed flock inside forest at BRL.
    Ptilocichla leucogrammica BORNEAN WREN-BABBLER 2003 Not a hint of any at BRL despite lots of effort by Wangkong in "trolling" by whistling its easily-imitated call.
    1988 One seen at DVFC; my field notes read that among the "highlights was seeing the spectacular Bornean Wren-Babbler. Looks like a large ant-thrush walking on logs. Very pearled below white droplets on black; mottled face; white supercilium; bright chestnut back/wings/tail; and two-part up one minor chord call." This is a much-wanted Bornean endemic.
    Kenopia striata STRIPED WREN-BABBLER [*] 2003 Wangkong whistled in pairs for us at both DVFC and BRL but Don failed to see any of them due to steamed-up glasses and basic incompetence. Rita had nice views. Would have been a lifer for Don and was his most frustrating dip of the trip.
    Napothera atrigularis BLACK-THROATED WREN-BABBLER ** 2003 Wangkong whistled in a pair to thick undergrowth at the edge of the access road at BRL. It took Don 'forever' to finally see one although Wangkong had multiple views over 20 minutes. Finally he physically 'set' Don looking into a dark hole and lo and behold! Full frame bino views of a calling male dueling it out with Wangkong's imitations. We left him 'winning' that debate. This was a much-wanted Bornean endemic.
    Napothera crassa MOUNTAIN WREN-BABBLER 2003 Don had nice views (and took a marginal photo!) of one with a mixed flock along Silau-Silau trail at GK. The wren-babbler perched up on a log for some time. This is one of 3 endemic wren-babblers in Borneo.
    1988 Two parties of 4-5 birds seen in ravines at GK. I have detailed field notes and the comment that their call is like the title track (first phrases) of TV's "Twilight Zone" theme song.
    Stachyris nigriceps GRAY-THROATED BABBLER 2003 Common undergrowth babbler at GK.
    Stachyris poliocephala GRAY-HEADED BABBLER 2003 One pair seen in forest at BRL. Others have found them more common than this.
    Stachyris nigricollis BLACK-THROATED BABBLER 2003 A couple on 2 days at Mulu; pairs found on territory in thickets along boardwalk.
    Stachyris maculata CHESTNUT-RUMPED BABBLER 2003 Quite a nice but skulking babbler found singly or with flocks a few times at BRL and in Mulu.
    Stachyris erythroptera CHESTNUT-WINGED BABBLER 2003 A rather common undergrowth babbler often with flocks in Mulu & Poring & Sukau & BRL & DVFC.
    Macronous gularis STRIPED TIT-BABBLER 2003 Common in road-edge thickets but very hard to see. Heard daily at BRL (but rarely seen); also in scrub at Miri.
    Macronous ptilosus FLUFFY-BACKED TIT-BABBLER ** 2003 We were surprised to find pairs at Mulu & Poring & BRL; noisy and responsive and not nearly as uncommon as the literature suggested.
    Pteruthius flaviscapis WHITE-BROWED SHRIKE-BABBLER 2003 Pairs encountered with mixed canopy flocks on several days at GK.
    Alcippe brunneicauda BROWN FULVETTA 2003 We taped in a pair at Mulu but never got a good handle on the calls; probably much more common than represented by that lone observation.
    Yuhina everetti CHESTNUT-CRESTED YUHINA 2003 Common at GK where flocks of 20+ birds often by themselves are encountered. Also seen much lower down at Poring and one was in a mixed flock near Deer Cave at Mulu which is very much in the lowlands. This is among the easier Bornean endemics to find.

    Chestnut-crested Yuhina (right) at Mt. Kinabalu in 1988

    Yuhina zantholeuca WHITE-BELLIED YUHINA 2003 A few pairs at Sepilok & BRL.
    Prionochilus maculatus YELLOW-BREASTED FLOWERPECKER 2003 One at Mulu and a couple more at BRL.
    Prionochilus xanthopygius YELLOW-RUMPED FLOWERPECKER 2003 This endemic was seen almost daily at BRL; twice pink-billed juvs were encountered that also seemed likely to be this species.
    Dicaeum chrysorrheum YELLOW-VENTED FLOWERPECKER 2003 Seen twice by Rita at BRL (one from canopy walkway) but missed entirely by Don.
    Dicaeum trigonostigma ORANGE-BELLIED FLOWERPECKER 2003 Pair at Miri; more at Mulu; Rita had two at Poring; and a final male was in garden at BRL.
    Dicaeum concolor PLAIN FLOWERPECKER ** 2003 Nice views of one in the garden at BRL.
    Dicaeum monticolum BLACK-SIDED FLOWERPECKER 2003 Pairs of this endemic were seen or heard daily around headquarters area at GK.
    Dicaeum cruentatum SCARLET-BACKED FLOWERPECKER 2003 The only ones of the trip were two bright males in scrubby garden next to the Miri airport.
    Chalcoparia singalensis RUBY-CHEEKED SUNBIRD 2003 One male seen at close range at BRL.
    Anthreptes simplex PLAIN SUNBIRD 2003 One (likely a female) was with a mixed flock along the Nature Trail at BRL.
    Anthreptes malacensis PLAIN-THROATED SUNBIRD 2003 The common sunbird in lowland Sarawak; several at Miri and then daily around the resort in Mulu. One male in garden at BRL was the only one seen in Sabah.
    Anthreptes rhodolaema RED-THROATED SUNBIRD 2003 A common sunbird at BRL with males seen along the access road most days. A brightly-colored sunbird glimpsed on Pulau Tiga was possibly this species.
    Hypogramma hypogrammicum PURPLE-NAPED SUNBIRD 2003 One imm. male (without purple nape) was in the garden at BRL and others were heard in the forest there.
    Cinnyris jugularis OLIVE-BACKED SUNBIRD 2003 Two at Sukau, and just two at BRL, but common and conspicuous on Pulau Tiga.
    Aethopyga siparaja CRIMSON SUNBIRD 2003 A bright male was in a Miri garden and then females were seen most days at Mulu. An imm. male up at GK headquarters was apparently this species (not Temminck's); this is based on its obviously gray (not white belly). The literature we had was contradictory on whether this is within usual range.
    Aethopyga temminckii TEMMINCK'S SUNBIRD 2003 This highland sunbird should have been common but we saw only a couple females during 5 days at GK. This is a recent split from Scarlet Sunbird A. mystacalis.
    1988 Nice male watched along the Liwagu River.
    Arachnothera crassirostris THICK-BILLED SPIDERHUNTER 2003 Single birds were seen inside the forest and up in the canopy on 2 of 8 days at BRL. Most other species were in the garden.
    Arachnothera flavigaster SPECTACLED SPIDERHUNTER 2003 A pair was feeding a just-fledged youngster in the BRL garden.
    Arachnothera robusta LONG-BILLED SPIDERHUNTER 2003 A canopy species that was always on the move; seen briefly in BRL garden and along access road there.
    Arachnothera longirostra LITTLE SPIDERHUNTER 2003 The widespread lowland spiderhunter but always on the move. Found at Miri & Mulu & Poring & daily in the garden and along access road at BRL.
    Arachnothera chrysogenys YELLOW-EARED SPIDERHUNTER 2003 A few were well-scattered in lowland gardens from Mulu to BRL and DVFC.
    Arachnothera affinis STREAKY-BREASTED SPIDERHUNTER ** 2003 Per the 4th ed. of Smythies' Birds of Borneo this is a split from the following species. This is the one occurring in n.e. Borneo and Java. We found it regularly in the BRL garden.
    Arachnothera modesta GRAY-BREASTED SPIDERHUNTER 2003 One was in the garden at Mulu resort. This is a split from preceding species and occurs in mainland Malaysia to Sumatra & w. Borneo.
    Arachnothera juliae WHITEHEAD'S SPIDERHUNTER 2003 None found despite "trolling" with tape.
    1988 One nicely seen along Liwagu trail at GK.
    Zosterops atricapillus BLACK-CAPPED WHITE-EYE 2003 Common in mixed flocks at GK.
    Zosterops everetti  EVERETT'S WHITE-EYE 2003 We were unsure whether we had this at GK viewing conditions weren't the best but Rita had it in the garden at Poring.
    Chlorocharis emiliae MOUNTAIN BLACK-EYE 2003 Common above 7000' elev. on GK but one was in a flock down at 6000' along summit road.
    Aplonis panayensis ASIAN GLOSSY-STARLING 2003 Common and widespread in open lowlands (e.g. Miri & Kota Kinabalu & Sepilok edge) but not in forest. Common on Pulau Tiga.
    Gracula religiosa COMMON HILL MYNA 2003 One inside forest at Mulu where its loud calls were startling; a few at BRL (including some seen from canopy walkway).
    Lonchura fuscans DUSKY MUNIA 2003 This Bornean endemic is common and widespread in lowlands but avoids forests. At BRL & DVFC it was only in the gardens or roadside edge.
    Lonchura atricapilla CHESTNUT (Southern Black-headed) MUNIA 2003 Small flock at Miri; pair nesting in garden at Sukau Rainforest Lodge.

    Introduced non-native birds:
    Columba livia ROCK DOVE 2003 Common in Kota Kinabalu & Lahad Datu.
    Geopelia striata ZEBRA DOVE 2003 Two in gardens at Miri & near Kuala Penyu; they are introduced to coastal Sarawak & Sabah.
    Acridotheres cristatellus CRESTED MYNA 2003 An introduced species on Borneo. Seen on grass at Kota Kinabalu airport.
    Passer montanus EURASIAN TREE SPARROW 2003 Introduced on Borneo and common in lowlands around town and cities.
    Amandava amandava RED AVADAVAT 2003 Introduced in s. Borneo but apparently has spread as we had a flock near Kuala Penyu.
    Lonchura punctulata NUTMEG MANNIKIN 2003 Introduced in s. Borneo but spreading; we had a few at Miri.

    Dips: Between my two visits (1988 & 2003) I did pretty well on most birds that could be expected. We expected to miss Calyptomena hosii HOSE'S BROADBILL [*] because it is so rare within the areas we visited. I had higher hopes for Arachnothera everetti BORNEAN SPIDERHUNTER [*; others found it at Poring] and Oculocincta squamifrons PYGMY WHITE-EYE [*; there had been stake-outs in the garden at BRL in the last few years but Simon Harrop, leading the Birdquest group whom we saw at Gomantong, told me that they'd missed it this year at BRL despite much effort because the favored tree had been cut down]. Two species inexplicably missed both trips were: Meiglyptes tristis BUFF-RUMPED WOODPECKER [*; said to be regular in Danum Valley] and Pycnonotus flavescens FLAVESCENT BULBUL [*; said to be reasonably common at GK].

    MAMMALS

    The taxonomy here follows Payne, Francis & Phillipps (1985).
    Hylomys suillus LESSER GYMNURE 2003 One dashing in and out of the rubbish heap near Timpohon Gate at end of summit road on GK. Resembles a large dark shrew with naked tail.
    Tupaia montana MOUNTAIN TREESHREW 2003 One in the forest on Kiva View trail seemed most likely to be this species.
    Cynocephalus variegatus COLUGO [Flying Lemur] 2003 Individuals were seen twice on night drives at BRL; possibly the same one was seen both times although several nights apart. One was heard calling another night. The one seen was hitching its way high up a straight thin limbless tree trunk and we had great views of the head looks like a mouse deer and the extensive gliding membrane that encloses the back legs and tail. Just a fabulous mammal! Colugo is often called "flying lemur" but it is not related to lemurs at all. It is in its own order (Dermoptera) and there are just two species: this one and another in s. Philippines.
    Rhinolophus sp.? (borneensis?) BORNEAN HORSESHOE BAT 2003 The many bats seen in flight inside the "bat caves" at Poring apparently included Horseshoe Bats; perhaps borneensis. This information comes primarily from V. Dinets.
    Murina suilla? LESSER TUBE-NOSED BAT ? 2003 A day-flying bat foraging over a small river at Mulu may have been this species. We watched it daily at close range from the boardwalk bridge enroute to Deer Cave.
    Tadarida plicata WRINKLE-LIPPED FREE-TAILED BAT 2003 This is the abundant bat seen on the "bat flights" out of Deer Cave at Mulu. Presumably it is also the species roosting densely in Gomantong Cave.
    Presbytis hosei HOSE'S LANGUR 2003 Small party near Deer Cave in Mulu.
    Presbytis rubicunda MAROON LANGUR [Red Leaf Monkey] 2003 Small parties watched at close range; video'd & photo'd on 2 of 8 days at BRL. Just great little monkeys!
    Presbytis cristata SILVERED LANGUR 2003 Small parties seen each day spent on the Kinabatangan River at Sukau; another family group at BRL was considered rare there.
    Nasalis larvatus PROBOSCIS MONKEY 2003 This is a major attraction along the Kinabatangan River at Sukau. We saw, video'd, and photo'd good numbers (up to 50+/day) feeding in the riverside trees. Fabulous monkeys with much variation in the size of their noses. They are endemic to Borneo; known only from three general locales; and are in decline.
    Macaca fascicularis LONG-TAILED MACAQUE 2003 Widespread and common in lowland Sabah. Seen daily at Sukau; more at Poring and BRL; and common on Pulau Tiga. Some large males can be very aggressive.
    Macaca nemestrina PIG-TAILED MACAQUE 2003 A few came to the feeding station at Sepilok (including an alpha male) and a few more were seen at BRL.
    Hylobates muelleri BORNEAN GIBBON 2003 Heard every day around BRL and they could be seen in the early morning there with a little effort. Good views of parties along the Nature trail there and along the access road. Their calls epitomize "wild Borneo."
    Pongo pygmaeus ORANG-UTAN 2003 Four semi-wild orangs of varying ages came to the feeding station in Sepilok; we found another deep inside the forest the next morning. We are told that all these are rehabilitated orphans from various sources. Truly wild Orang-Utan [pronounced "O-ron-oo-ton" not "O-rang-a-tang"] were seen on 4 of our 8 days at BRL. These were: a family group (male; female; baby) that had used a tree nest along the access road near the lodge; two different youngsters inside the forest on different days (Rita has video); and an absolutely huge adult male feeding high in a forest tree on the Sapa Babandril trail our final morning. He was as big as a male gorilla and had huge and round flat cheeks. When he saw us he began a series of complaining vocalizations that were wonderful to hear. We heard orangs on several other days that we did not see them. For tourists that visit BRL seeing an Orang-Utan is a prime goal. But many failed since they only stayed 2 or 3 nights. Experiencing wild orangs is among the highlights of this trip.
    Ratufa affinis GIANT SQUIRREL 2003 Single huge squirrels were seen at Poring and at BRL.
    Callosciurus prevostii PREVOST'S SQUIRREL 2003 Good numbers daily at Mulu.
    Callosciurus baluensis KINABALU SQUIRREL 2003 Seen most days at GK.
    Callosciurus orestes BORNEAN BLACK-BANDED SQUIRREL 2003 Almost daily at GK.
    Sundasciurus hippurus HORSE-TAILED SQUIRREL 2003 One inside forest at BRL.
    Sundasciurus jentinki JENTINK'S SQUIRREL 2003 Seen most days at GK.
    Dremomys everetti BORNEAN MOUNTAIN GROUND-SQUIRREL 2003 Seen along summit trail above Timpohan Gate; some begging for food from hikers.
    Exilisciurus exilis PLAIN PYGMY SQUIRREL 2003 Common at Mulu and this includes at the resort. They are very fast and constantly moving! Very tiny beasts.
    Exilisciurus whiteheadi WHITEHEAD'S PYGMY SQUIRREL 2003 One seen at GK.
    Aeromys tephromelas BLACK FLYING-SQUIRREL 2003 Several watched on night drives at BRL; one seen to glide out into the night!
    Aeromys thomasi THOMAS'S FLYING-SQUIRREL 2003 This all-red flying-squirrel seen on 2 of 6 night drives at BRL.
    Petaurista petaurista RED GIANT FLYING-SQUIRREL 2003 This big red flying-squirrel with black tip to tail was seen on 3 of 6 night drives at BRL.
    Vierra tangalunga MALAY CIVET 2003 One watched as it walked across the access road at BRL during a night drive.
    Paradoxurus hermaphroditus COMMON PALM CIVET 2003 One on night drive out beyond the BRL gate. It was foraging on the ground.
    Arctogalidia trivirgata SMALL-TOOTHED PALM CIVET 2003 Three different ones were seen on night drives on 3 nights at BRL. All were feeding in flowering shrubs well up off the ground. We had some really close views of one of them.
    Cynogale bennettii OTTER-CIVET 2003 This was the "best" mammal of the trip from the standpoint of rarity. It is a "little known" terrestrial and aquatic predator. We saw it during an extended night drive at BRL but well out beyond the BRL gate. It was foraging in a small stream running through a gulley below the road. We had good views of its otter-like paws, broad face, and all-dark pelage. A real treat.
    Herpestes brachyurus SHORT-TAILED MONGOOSE 2003 One crossed the BRL access road during the day.
    Sus barbatus BEARDED PIG 2003 On several nights at BRL a wild pig would come to the back door of the kitchen for hand-outs. Others were seen late one afternoon crossing the access road there.
    Tragulus javinicus LESSER MOUSE-DEER 2003 Seen on about half of the night drives at BRL; several times studied at length. They seemed oblivious to the truck and spotlight as they foraged in the brush next to the road. On one night a youngster came to the lodge itself and was pitifully crying off the main deck during dinner.
    Tragulus napu GREATER MOUSE-DEER 2003 None.
    1988 One watched inside the forest at DVFC was believed to be this species on its very uniform pattern.
    Muntiacus muntjak RED MUNTJAC 2003 None seen but surprised muntjac were heard barking a couple times at BRL.
    1988 A muntjac inside the forest at DVFC was thought to be this species as it was "darker brown" than what was thought to be the next species.
    Murtacus atherodes BORNEAN YELLOW MUNTJAC 2003 None for sure; see above on those heard.
    1988 A "pale tan-colored" muntjac that crossed the road at DVFC was thought to be this species.
    Cervus unicolor SAMBAR 2003 A pair grazed on the grass outside our room at BRL every night. Others seen on night drives or during the day when they crossed the access road.
    Droppings of Asian Elephant Elephas maximus were regularly seen at BRL. Visitors driving into the lodge one day told of seeing several elephants on the drive. There are times when they are seen right around the lodge.

    HERPS (Amphibians & Reptiles)

    Notochelys platynota CREEK TERRAPIN 2003 A large turtle rescued from a busy road and released at Sepilok could have been this species.
    Crocodylus porosus ASIAN SALT-WATER CROCODILE 2003 A couple of baby crocs were seen during the day in muddy shallows of Kinabatangan River.
    Gonocephalus liogaster COMB-CRESTED AGAMID 2003 One photo'd at close range on tree trunk inside forest at BRL.
    Mabuya  rudis ROUGH-SCALED BROWN SKINK 2003 Skinks of this ilk were photo'd on boardwalks at Mulu & Sepilok & BRL; presumbably many were this species although some may have been M multifasciataVillage Brown Skink.
    Apterygodon vittatus STRIPED TREE SKINK 2003 Skinks on trees at Mulu (some photo'd) and BRL were likely this species or a related skink.
    Hemidactylus frenatus COMMON HOUSE GECKOO 2003 Our "house" geckos at BRL seemed likely to be this species.
    Gonydactylus consobrinus GIANT BENT-TOED GECKO 2003 A huge gecko running in and out of brick holes in the roofline of the restroom at Gomantong Cave seemed likely to be this species; this also may be the one we heard daily at BRL and Pulau Tiga?
    [Python reticulatus RETICULATED PYTHON] 2003 One found dead recently run over on the rutted dirt road to Sukau. It looked to be 8-10' long and beautifully patterned.
    Pareas malaccanus DARK-NECKED SLUG-EATING SNAKE 2003 Rita saw one crossing the access road at BRL.
    Lycodon or Liopeltis SNAKE 2003 A small 6-8" terrestrial snake eating a horn frog was found in the leaf litter by Wangkong; Rita got fabulous video.
    Zaocys fuscus WHITE-BELLIED RAT SNAKE 2003
    A big snake (~2m or 5 ft long!) swimming across a tributary of Kinabatangan River was impressive. It swam very fast with its head held up out of the water and then quickly slithered into a riverside bush (photo above). The boatman called it a "cobra" and it wasn't identified correctly until after the trip. I emailed a photo to Robert Inger at the Field Museum in Chicago; he sorted this out for us.
    Maticora bivirgata ORIENTAL CORAL SNAKE 2003 Don almost stepped on this impressive snake while walking back from the bat flight at Deer Cave in Mulu. The snake was heading down a rocky slope that crossed our cemented stairs. Don and the Coral Snake saw each other just about the same time and retreated rapidly. Rita saw the coral snake backing up with its red head raised up; Don got nice looks at the body stripe pattern (plus red head).
    Laticauda colubrina YELLOW-LIPPED SEA KRAIT 2003 Our guide to Pular Ular found 4 of these semi-aquatic and poisonous sea snakes resting under rocks or logs at the shore edge. We never got great looks; but apparently at low tide views are better (we were there at high tide). This was still cool and the reason I chose to go to P. Tiga.
    Various frogs went unidentified, both seen and unseen. The rest of these were identified with Inger & Lian (1996) or Steubing & Inger (1999). When that was enough, we asked Robert Inger directly via email.

    PHOTOS: All photos on this page are © 2002 Don Roberson except as otherwise noted; the others are video caps from digital video by Rita Carratello; all rights reserved.

    Literature cited:

    Bransbury, J. 1993. A Birdwatcher's Guide to Malaysia. Waymark Publ., Adelaide, Australia.

    Chantler, P. 2000. Swifts: A Guide to the Swifts and Treeswifts of the World. 2d ed. Yale Univ. Press, New Haven, CT.

    Colenutt, S. 2002. Little-known Oriental bird: Bornean Bristlehead. Oriental Bird Club Bull. 35:75-77.

    Dutson, G., R. Wilkinson, and B. Sheldon. 1991. Hook-billed Bulbul Setornis criniger and Grey-breasted Babbler Malacopteron albogulare at Barita Ulu, Kalimantan. Forktail 6:78-82.

    Francis, C.M., ed. 1984. Pocket Guide to the Birds of Borneo, from plates in B.E. Smythies, Birds of Borneo, 3d ed. The Sabah Society, Kota Kinabalu.

    Harrap, S. 1994. Little-known Oriental bird: Kinabalu Friendly Warbler. Oriental Bird Club Bull. 20:24-27.

    Inger, R.F., and T.F. Lian. 1996. The Natural History of Amphibians and Reptiles in Sabah. Natural Hist. Publ. (Borneo) Sdn. Bhd., Kota Kinabalu.

    Kurata, S. 1976. Nepenthes of Mount Kinabalu. Sabah National Parks publ. 2, Kota Kinabalu.

    Lambert, F., and M. Woodcock. 1996. Pittas, Broadbills, and Asities. Pica Press, East Sussex, U.K.

    MacKinnon, J. 1974. In Search of the Red Ape. Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York.

    MacKinnon, J., and K. Phillipps. 1993. A Field Guide to the Birds of Borneo, Sumatra, Java, and Bali. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford.

    Payne, J., C.M. Francis, and K. Phillipps. 1985. A Field Guide to the Mammals of Borneo. The Sabah Society, Kota Kinabalu.

    Showler, D.A. 1992. Birdwatching areas: Danum Valley Conservation Area, Sabah, Malaysia. Oriental Bird Club Bull. 16:26-31.

    Steubing, R.B., and R.F. Inger. 1999. A Field Guide to the Snakes of Borneo. Natural Hist. Publ. (Borneo) Sdn. Bhd., Kota Kinabalu.

    Wheatley, N. 1996. Where to Watch Birds in Asia. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, N.J.

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